Rickets and Vitamin D
Childhood Diseases / / March 30, 2016
Back in the Middle Ages, doctors pay attention to the pathological changes in the skeleton in some children, the first time the rickets was described by British grabbers in 1650, although knowledge of the true causesdisease was still far off.Today, the disease mechanism is studied thoroughly, but this, alas, does not mean that rickets became less frequent.
fact that children in the distant past hurt, of course: their mothers have not heard anything about the vitamins, a balanced diet, gymnastics for newborns and the healing power of sunlight.However, modern scholars believe that rickets in "ancient" of children has been associated not only with the lack of sun exposure, many with poor nutrition and poor living conditions.
In more recent times, the cause of rickets could also be a migration of people from the sunny south to the northern region.A similar pattern is observed today in Asian and African countries: the problem of rickets disease is very serious due to the difficult economic situation and lack of food.
is in our metropolitan areas are reasons: over large cities with their high-rise buildings and gassed a dense smoke screen, do not miss the required amount of ultraviolet radiation from the sun.As a result, much needed baby vitamin D , which should produce the skin when exposed to UV radiation, not form.
way, UV rays - is not the only source of the necessary vitamins.Another sure way - the food.However, not all, but only the animal - milk, cheese, chicken egg yolk, liver, fresh meat, fish.But here's the thing: developing rickets in infants aged one month, when the tiny body digest such food is not able to.
And even if the sun to expose your baby and breast milk to fill the missing stocks of vitamin, it still does not protect against rickets , because in itself vitamin D has not yet antirahiticheskim action.To become so, it needs to connect to the bile and then undergo a complex process in the liver and kidneys.But still immature organs and enzyme systems are not able to carry out such work.That's why rickets in large cities has become very common and almost natural state appeared on the kids light.
main symptoms of rickets Rickets
- a disease of the growing organism, affecting, in the first place, the skeletal system.However, it may suffer and the nervous system (convulsions), and muscle (decreased muscle tone), and digestive (in severe rickets children do not gain weight, there are frequent regurgitation, violations of the chair), and hematopoietic (in severe rickets areanemia) and immune (children are often sick, and against the background of SARS banal rickets can occur very hard).
most coarse changes caused rickets , occur in those parts of the skeleton, which at the time of disease are growing most rapidly: in the first months of life, changes are observed in the skull bones (they become more pliable, soft, pronounced frontal and parietal hillocks), then- on the chest (so-called "beads fin" occurring at junctions of the rib cartilage into bone), by the year changes can be in the arms and legs (shins deformity of the small joints).
most susceptible rickets kids between the ages of 2-3 months to 2-3 years.But there is also the so-called "late rickets" - it can occur in chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, when disturbed absorption of vitamin D , in diseases of the pancreas, with poor nutrition, from living in the dark, semi-basement.
How is rickets
Usually, at the beginning of the disease the children become irritable, restless, little and sleep poorly.The classic symptom of rickets is strong sweating of the head of the child, especially at the end of feeding.Children quite pale, eating disorders can be expressed as in overweight and insufficiently a raise.
muscle tone decreases, kids begin to fall behind their peers in physical (later start to sit, stand, walk), and then in psychomotor development.The skull of the child becomes large, large fontanelle expanded its soft edges;expand the frontal and parietal hillocks, from which top the skull becomes a square shape.As for the chest, then in addition to the above-described "rib beads", with protracted rickets can change its shape - the sternum protrudes forward, and on the sides of the breast is flattened, the lower ribs are given out.
deformed and limb bones, especially thicken the wrist joint and the ankle.Load and sometimes influenced shortened muscles, legs and O- acquire X-shaped.Lowers the tone for all groups of muscles, including the abdominal muscles - it becomes swollen, large ( "frog stomach"), often observed umbilical hernia.The characteristic phenomenon - the constipation associated with weak bowel muscles.Also delayed dentition (their term and procedure).
In children suffering from severe rickets , there is an increase of tonsils and lymph nodes, as due to lower immunity, these babies often suffer from chronic infections.Vitamin D deficiency violates the exchange of calcium and phosphorus.Calcium begins to actively leached from the bones (excreted in the urine), which are growing rapidly.As a result, they become soft and deformed growing cartilage in the joints of the sternum to the ribs can be felt seal.
Phosphorus also excreted from the body.Its deficiency depresses the nervous and muscular systems.The child appears shortness of breath, clammy sweat, diaper rash, alopecia neck.This is due to the fact that sweat and irritate the skin of the head rubs baby pillow.Besides.Reduced immune defense, more frequent respiratory and broncho-pulmonary diseases.Child shy, moody, shudders in his sleep, his short sleep and disturbing, often fever.
treatment and prevention of rickets
How to protect your baby from this serious disease?First of all, it is necessary during pregnancy to conduct preventive measures: to spend more time outdoors, include in your diet milk products, cottage cheese, sour cream, cheese, meat, fish, butter and vegetable oil, a sufficient amount of fresh fruits and vegetables.If the pregnancy is in the autumn and winter, we recommend taking multivitamin supplements for expectant mothers.
Postnatal prophylaxis (immediately after the birth of a baby) includes:
- Natural breastfeeding mothers good nutrition, early but not too early introduction of complementary foods.
- Adherence day stay enough baby outdoors in the daytime.
- Careful childcare, gym, massage.
- if necessary - specific prevention by receiving vitamin D.
Generally, treatment of rickets physicians are divided into specific and nonspecific .Specific - what is prescribed by the doctor.Non-specific - that holds mom.And the latter, it appears, the child recovery depends to a greater extent.This is a walk in the fresh air, well-organized sleep and waking, rational nutrition, massage, gym.
last two points is not difficult to perform, because massage is a gentle stroking and rubbing the baby calf from top to bottom, and gymnastics - in careful breeding hands and feet to the side.Since crumbs bones have not yet matured, the static load is strictly prohibited.Massage should be done slowly, for 8-10 minutes, 2-3 times a day, turning the baby from back to tummy and vice versa.Procedures enhance the metabolic processes in the skin, which contributes to the formation in it vitamin D .
It is also very useful in swimming - rachitic children should bathe every day, spending in the water such as the gym, as well as on the "land" - gently splay and limbs, stroking, giving crumbs to make arms and legs swimming movements (to do this,from time to time to bathe him in a large tub, where a lot of space).But active pronyrivaniya contraindicated in rickets - stress can cause deterioration of the child's condition.
Overdose of vitamin D
There is one very important fact: the kid wanting a speedy recovery, do no harm!The fact that the intensive treatment of drug overdose may occur vitamin D .And this is, perhaps, worse than if it had lacked.The child starts vomiting, by refusing to eat to lose weight, there is an increase in body temperature, lethargy, drowsiness.
Excess vitamin D suppresses the activity of the nervous and muscular systems, causing serious complications of the liver, provoking allergic attacks.Moreover, vitamin D , can cause serious poisoning tiny body.Calcium can block urine output - in this case, there is edema, and kidney can not even withstand such loads.
Before giving your child drops vitamin D , be sure to check with your doctor.And if he believes that the child needs more than one drop in the day, let's vitamin immediately, but gradually increasing the dose: in the first week - one drop;if no allergic reactions and symptoms listed above, in the second week - two, next - three.If the baby is breastfed, it is better if a drop to drink of mother - as a result will increase the content of vitamin D in milk, liver and crumbs will not suffer.
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