Rubella in Children
Childhood Diseases / / August 12, 2017
Rubella-vysokozaraznoe an acute infectious disease caused by the rubella virus.
most often sick rubella unvaccinated children 2-9 years.Especially dangerous rubella in the first 3 months of pregnancy, while often develop severe birth defects of the baby, it is possible intrauterine fetal death.In general, adults rubella more severe than in children.
source of infection is a person with symptomatic or abortive form of rubella.Ways of transmission - airborne (when talking with the patient, kissing) and vertical (from mother to fetus).It is also possible via the contact path zarazheniya- toys.The patient becomes infectious for 1 week before the rash appears and continues to excrete the virus for 5-7 days after rash onset.A child with congenital rubella allocates pathogen for a longer time (up to 21-20 months).
What happens after infection with rubella?
The incubation period of the disease lasts from 11 to 24 days (usually 16-20).
virus rubella enters the body through the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and is carried by the blood throughout the body, causing swelling of the lymph nodes, especially those that are located on the back of the head and back of the neck.Sometimes there is a slight runny nose, dry cough, sore throat, watery eyes.The most difficult rubella occurs in adults: is characterized by increase in body temperature (up to 38-39 ° C), headache, muscle aches, loss of appetite.
On the first day of the disease in 75-90% of patients have a characteristic rash on the skin, and rashes are more common in children.rash elements are round or oval pink red shallow spots.Often the rash appears first on the face and neck, behind the ears and on the scalp, and then during the day it appears on the trunk and extremities.Especially typical location of scars on the back, buttocks, outer surface of the hands and feet of the front surface.On the soles and palms rash is absent.Sometimes both small edinychnye rashes appear on the oral mucosa.The rash lasts two or three days.
have children rubella usually flows easily.
Complications rubella are rare and occur in children with immunodeficiency.These include: pneumonia, otitis, arthritis, angina, thrombocytopenic purpura.Very rarely (mainly for adults) appear brain damage - encephalitis and meningoencephalitis.Rubella in pregnant women is not a serious danger to the expectant mother, but significantly increases the risk of fetal malformations.
Diagnosis and treatment The diagnosis of rubella
rubella , as a rule, put, if the child has had contact with a sick rubella, it is not vaccinated, there is a characteristic skin rash, swollen lymph nodes and other symptoms.
The diagnosis is confirmed by a blood test from a vein in the antiviral antibodies, which takes place on 1-3 th day of illness, and after 7-10 days.On rubella antibodies indicates an increase by 4 times or more.
Treatment is usually carried out at home.During eruptions child needs bed rest.Special treatment is not administered, sometimes used symptomatic agents (medications that remove symptoms of the disease).
When complications require emergency hospitalization.
Prognosis in most cases favorable.Re-infection with rubella is impossible.
Prevention of rubella in children
To prevent the spread of infection with rubella is isolated within 5 days after the rash appears.In respect of persons to communicate with them any restrictive measures are not provided to a quarantine group child care centers do not impose.It is important to avoid contact with the sick child by pregnant women.
Vaccination against rubella included in the immunization schedule.In Russia, the most commonly used MMR measles-mumps-rubella.The vaccine is administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly at 12 -15 months and again at 6 years.Specific immunity develops within 15-20 days, almost 100% of the vaccinated and lasts for more than 20 years.
Rubella Rubella and Pregnancy Symptoms of rubella
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12, 08, 2017