Childhood Diseases / / March 28, 2016
Conjunctivitis: symptoms, treatment of conjunctivitis
Almost all children, sooner or later, but familiar with the unpleasant and dangerous disease such as conjunctivitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye).Therefore, as soon as the baby starts to blush, and too much watering eyes, he begins to rub and plaintive cry at the same time, and even more so if there are any discharge from the eyes, you should immediately find out what happened and how you can help your child.
conjunctiva, almost transparent membrane covering the entire inner surface of the eyelids and the white of the eye (the visible part of the eyeball).Usually it is protected from bad injuries and infections and lids constant "washing" the tear fluid.Tears have a high antibacterial activity due to the high content of immunoglobulins, lysozyme and other substances that inhibit the growth of microorganisms hostile to us.
However, any, even minor injuries, getting into the eyes of foreign bodies(even such small as the dust and grains of sand), the weakening of the body due to illness (not necessarily the eye), allergic diseases, infections, and even disruption of normal outflow of tears (eg, resulting in obstruction of the tear ducts) can reduce the level of such protection and contribute to the development of conjunctivitis.
signs of mucosal inflammation eye:
- redness of the eyeball (becoming clearly visible small blood vessels);
- edema of the eyelids and conjunctiva;
- appearance of whitish or purulent discharge from the eyes.
Often, a child's temperature rises, he becomes irritable, he loses appetite, trouble sleeping ... and, of course, the baby start to disturb the itching and pain in the eyes.After a long sleep in the corners of the eyes may appear the dried brown or purulent secretions film, sometimes because of dried pus glued eyelashes, and the baby after sleep can not open my eyes - which, of course, scares him and his parents.
When these symptoms it is better not to postpone the visit with the child to a specialist - Pediatric Ophthalmology, it is very important for the proper treatment, and in order to avoid possible (and very serious - some very advanced cases up to blindness) complications.Self-medication and the hope of "maybe" is inappropriate also because that alone is almost impossible to establish the exact cause of the disease, even a doctor can not always do it without analyzes - but no information on the causative agent is not possible to appoint a cure of the disease, which would be most effective in this case.
Who is to blame?
most common cause of conjunctivitis - a bacterial infection, the pathogen (particularly in children with weakened immune systems) may serve as the representative of the normal microflora of the eye, who lives with us constantly, - Staphylococcus epidermidis.
Staphylococci are responsible for 65% of childhood conjunctivitis, and most often it is the cause of staphylococcal conjunctivitis "gluing" of eyelashes after sleep: it is characterized by abundant muco-purulent discharge under the eyelids.However, it is not only the most common form of inflammation, but also the easiest to cure - usually enough to wash the eyes with antiseptic solutions, reducing the need to prescribe antibiotics.
Keep in mind that some antibiotics, it is quite usual in the treatment of a wide variety of infections in adults and children are contraindicated, including due to the risk of different developmental disorders - so you can not buy medicines "like themselves" on the advice of friends, pharmacists in pharmacy- the child must prescribe only an expert!
Pneumococcal conjunctivitis usually occurs more sharply: with swelling of the eyelids, spot rash, fever, can be easily removed form whitish purulent films.The disease usually affects both eyes, or immediately, or rapidly spreading to the other eye.Treatment is generally the same as staphylococcal conjunctivitis (antiseptics and antibiotics) in moderate cases conjunctivitis lasts up to two weeks.
Heaviest with the flow, as well as the most dangerous on the possible consequences - gonococcal conjunctivitis. Its causative agent is the gonococcus Neisser - the bacterium that causes gonorrhea.In case of defeat gonococcus eye diagnosed "blennophthalmia";before the beginning of the twentieth century, when they began to develop effective methods of treatment and preventive measures, the disease has been one of the most common causes of blindness from infancy.
blennophthalmia Infection usually occurs from the mother (gonorrhea in the acute or chronic form) during labor, much less the infection entered later during child care without complying with the necessary hygiene.Inflammation of the conjunctiva begins on the second or third day after birth, while usually affects both eyes at once.
develops swelling of the eyelids (and it can be so strong that not only the child can not open his eyes, but the doctor at survey sometimes failed to disclose become bluish-purple eyelids baby), there are bloody mucus, a fewdays (usually 3-4) turning into pus, and pus is released in large quantities, almost always.Conjunctiva swells and begins to be released as a roller or other irregularities.
At the first suspicion of conjunctivitis caused by gonococci, it is necessary to conduct bacteriological examination of discharge from the eyes of a child.If the diagnosis is confirmed - require treatment in a hospital, with local antiseptic in this case do not succeed: we need a comprehensive, general antibiotic therapy with complex application of antibiotics, strict compliance with their patterns of use and constant supervision of the state of the young patient.
treatment will be long, and in the case of medical errors or delays in termination procedures may re-aggravation of the disease and the development of serious complications: purulent corneal ulcers, its matching with the iris, education leukomas.In severe, very severe cases, when the diagnosis was delayed, and the treatment was not effective enough, the child may remain blind for life.There may be complications with the defeats of joints, muscles, cardiovascular system ...
Of course, no one wants their child to such a fate.Therefore, the most important way to deal with blennophthalmia is prevention - timely inspection and, if necessary, treatment of the mother.In antenatal clinics to all pregnant women, among others, analysis and research carried out in the presence of gonorrhea and other diseases, sexually transmitted diseases.
In identifying gonococcal should immediately begin treatment - and regular, timely and effective, and not a "folk remedies" in the hope that the "self-pass": it must be remembered that the disease may go into a latent form, and the pathogen remains inbody, endangering the child's infection.
Chlamydial conjunctivitis. Another type of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes of children associated with sexually transmitted diseases mother - trachoma.The share of this disease on the statistics necessary to 10-14% of conjunctivitis in different areas and age groups.The causative agent - the simplest microscopic Chlamydia trachomatik, parasitizing in human cells.
Usually infection occurs during childbirth, but non-compliance with the rules of hygiene medical personnel and hospital maternity hospitals and can transfer the mantle through dirty hands or household items from the sick child (or adult) healthy.Chlamydia can live a long time in a humid environment outside the body.The incubation period - from 5 days to 2 weeks, the disease begins in one eye and changes (albeit in a less severe form) to another.
develops swelling of the eyelids, out of them, a large amount of mucous pus.After the inflammation of the eye on the same side of the parotid lymph nodes are increased, often is affected ear - otitis develops or evstahiit.In this case, a study of the eye secretions and appointed as a general anti-bacterial and specific treatment.With early diagnosis and proper selection of trachoma drugs treated approximately 2 weeks.
Viral conjunctivitis common, their cause - the spread of infections in the mucous membrane of eyes as a result of protracted SARS.This occurs most often when adenoviral infections: first, the child develops a sore throat sore throat, cough, enlarged lymph nodes in the neck.Then, an inflammation of the conjunctiva begins against the backdrop of high temperature - a reddening of the eyes (usually at the beginning of one, and then, after a few days, and other), the appearance of edema, small mucous secretions (usually without pus), the advent of easily separating films and follicles (vesiclesno bigger than a match head) on the mucous membrane of the eye.
Typically, in the case of viral conjunctivitis specific treatment is not carried out, other than the usual for any viral disease to maintain and improve the child's immune system and local antiseptic treatment (to prevent entry of additional bacterial infection on the inflamed eye), and after 2-3 weeks the disease passes without any consequences.
exception is herpetic conjunctivitis. It is called the herpes simplex virus, which is almost all.Problems arise only if the weakening of the body and the fall of immunity.The disease is characterized by a rash of bubbles ( "fever") around the lesion.In severe cases of herpes conjunctivitis can lead to the formation of large follicles and ulcers on the mucous membrane - why specific treatment with antiviral drugs may be required in the formulation of such a diagnosis.
Conjunctivitis can be caused by physiological factors and external stimuli.So 15% of children aged from one month (when they start to work actively lacrimal gland) to six months there is blockage of the lacrimal mucus plug.As a result, the tears from under the eyelids do not swell time, stagnate and do not perform their protective function - the result can become inflamed.However, the cause obstruction of lacrimal system and other reasons - for example, inflammation of the eyelids, ingress of foreign bodies, the spread of inflammation from the nose at a rhinitis, sinusitis, etc.
little difficulty with the outflow of tear fluid can be removed with a light massage over the eyes, but in complicated cases, when a tear stagnant constantly and conjunctivitis occur regularly, you should always consult a doctor.He will lacrimal probing.
Banal conjunctivitis (not associated with infection) often occur due to chronic eyestrain.Signs of it all, we are well-known - redness, itching, burning, a feeling of "sand in the eyes" ... Usually in such cases, children (as, indeed, and adult) reflexively rubbed eyes with his hands - and contribute to both mechanical damage and is listed in the microbes Eyewith hand and the outer surface of the eyelids.
Treatment of conjunctivitis simply and efficiently - the use of antiseptics and load reduction - but it is better not to bring up such a bad state, especially as chronic or frequently recurring inflammation help reduce the severity of a child - and this, in turn,It leads to faster fatigue, and everything repeats "in a circle."
therefore easier and more important to carry out timely preventive maintenance:
- follow the child mode (last but not least - of how much time he spends in front of TV or computer!);
- provide sufficient and correct lighting for reading and homework;
- teach a child not to rub your eyes;
- watch for allergic reactions (allergy is also included in the risk factors for conjunctivitis).
And, of course, at the first sign of more serious complications than the bloodshot eyes of fatigue - refer to ophthalmologist to in a timely manner, at an early stage of the correct diagnosis and avoid complications.
Treatment of conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis in children
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