Nutrition during pregnancy
Pregnancy And Childbirth / / August 12, 2017
Feeding habits during pregnancy
Nutrition during pregnancy should be correct.This axiom is known, perhaps, to all expectant mothers.But some understand it literally - "need to have."After all, who does not dream to have a hero, weighing 4 kg?And many believe that the more a child weighs at birth, so it is healthier and will grow faster than peers.But this opinion is erroneous.On what factors it depends on the child's weight and why is there a lot of bad?
Weight of the child depends on the initial weight of the mother, as well as the number of kilograms recruited during pregnancy.There is a concept in medicine - BMI (body mass index).With the determination of whether the deviation index doctors learn there in body weight or not.For the calculation it is necessary to divide the body weight per height in meters squared.. For example, a woman with the growth of 167 cm and 70 kg of body weight is a BMI of 25 to 70: (1,67h1,67) = 25
19.8-26 - normal weight
26-29 - overweight
29 - obesity
35 - morbid obesity
women with overweight defined by calculating the BMI, there is an increased risk of premature birth and miscarriage in the early stages, the risk of eclampsia, disorders of the formation of the heart, etc. Yes,..obese women are rarely give birth to babies with more weight, but that is no reason for joy.Childbirth largest child often end with birth trauma.
Depending on the BMI standards are defined and weight gain during pregnancy.Ladies with normal weight may dial 11,5-16 kg.With overweight - 7-11,5.Underweight - 12,5-18 kg.Moreover, the weight should gain smoothly and evenly.In normal weight during trimester 2 and 3 - not more than 0.4 kg per week, with an excess - not more than 0.3 kg per week.
However, even if weight gain or overweight woman initially has a lot of extra kilos, do not need to comply with any diet.Although the revision of the nutrition in pregnancy week by week, of course, needs.Make your rough menu and show the doctor.He will advise which products should be excluded, determine the reason for the big gain.
caloric intake should be increased by approximately 300 kcal per day.And do not increase caloric content of food, and its quality.Say, "catch" the missing calories dry biscuits, rather, is to harm and lead to constipation than benefit.About 20% of the diet should be protein, 30% fat, 50% - carbohydrates.
In addition, care must be taken that the daily meals contain all the necessary vitamins and minerals.
Vitamin A. The required daily dose - 800 mcg.Is this vitamin in most green and yellow vegetables, and also in the yolk of eggs, milk, butter.Quickly destroyed in the air.
Vitamin B1. nutrition have recommended during pregnancy 1.5 mg per day.Contained in milk and cereals.
Vitamin B2. Norma - 1.6 mg per day.Contained in green vegetables, milk and seafood, eggs and cheese.
Vitamin B6. Standard - 2.2 mg per day.Contained in vegetables, as well as in walnuts, peanuts, hazelnuts, chicken meat and fish.
vitamin B12. daily rate - 2.2 g.This element has good resistance to light and heat.Contained in beef liver, spinach, green salad, seaweed and a variety of seafood, chicken, hard cheese.
Vitamin C. The day is recommended to drink about 70 mg.Ascorbic acid can be found not only in citrus, contrary to popular opinion, but also in most fruits and vegetables, as well as greenery.Another interesting point that should be aware of the future mothers - askorbinka (in kind and in the "synthetic") is not conducive to a proper degree of strengthening the immune system and, of course, does not help to avoid acute viral diseases or alleviate their course.
Vitamin D. Its norm - 200-400 IU.As is known, this substance is produced by the action of sunlight on the skin.Because of its shortage is unlikely to occur in the summer, and at any other time of year, if you go to regularly walk.In large quantities contained in animal products (butter, milk, egg white, eggs, etc.) - The power of pregnancy should always be rich in these protein products.
Vitamin E. Norma - 10 mg.Deficit it is extremely rare.Contained in foods of animal origin.
Vitamin K. His daily intake should be 65 mg.This substance is found in cabbage, tomatoes, foods of animal origin.That it helps to improve the absorption of calcium, which is especially important in the last trimester of pregnancy.
Folic acid. Its rate of pregnancy - at least 0.4 mg.However, studies show that even a full, varied diet can not fully provide the body with folic acid.An optional welcome it, not waiting for the conception and throughout the first half of the period of gestation of the child.With a shortage of folic acid in the fetus may occur serious and incurable pathology - neural tube defect.
Calcium. That it keeps our bones and teeth strong.Prenatal child gets calcium from the mother, thereby depriving it of important trace elements.The result of this action is often on the face - when the future mother of his teeth start to crumble.And all this despite the fact that nutrition during pregnancy in the early stages, and during the other months was correct and balanced.The calcium is contained in dairy products, fruits and vegetables.A lot of it in some varieties of cheese.The daily rate - 1000 mg per day.If you have any signs of calcium deficiency in the body - ask your doctor, so he wrote a drug containing the trace mineral.
Iron. This trace element plays a crucial role in the development of hemoglobin.The main sources of iron are protein foods: beans and meat.But even with good nutrition and a pretty high caloric intake, lack of iron - not a rarity.Normally, his future mother should receive the order of 3 mg per day, but since iron is very poorly absorbed (absorbed by only a tenth part), its daily rate for pregnant women - 30 mg.It promotes the absorption of vitamin C.
Sodium. Contained in the majority of used products, but mostly assimilated from common salt.It improves the digestibility of vitamin D. The lack of this trace element can be except that only fasting and vegans.One of the signs - cramps and neuralgia.Oversupply may have symptoms of edema of the limbs and face.It is important not to lean on table salt, because among the things that you can not have a large number of pregnant women in the first place, perhaps it is.
Phosphorus. Its rate - 1000 mg per day.We need this trace element for the formation of fetal bones.The disadvantage of it is rarely affected.Moreover, many Vitamins for expectant mothers phosphorus, for this reason contains, it does not.Exchange phosphorus compounds occur including due to vitamin D. Contained in meat animals, birds, fish.
Zinc. This trace element is especially important in the first trimester of pregnancy.The recommended dose - 15 mg per day.It should be very careful when taking additional medicines for iron and copper, as these substances can not be assimilated to give zinc, in principle, as well as the will interfere with the absorption of iron and copper, with additional admission.This point should be taken into consideration physician assigning a multivitamin or vitamin mono-funds.Zinc contained in many fruits, including - and exotic.
These are the main recommendations of doctors.Of course, do not try to carefully calculate how much of a particular substance has got into your body with food.I still do not get to count correctly, and will only nervous disorders.If you have a shortage of any item, believe me, the symptoms will necessarily.But supplementation is recommended to all, without exception, except that of folic acid and potassium iodide.Expectant mothers can also be assigned to calcium supplements and iron, in fact, as we have said, their deficiency is quite common among pregnant women.
About nutrition of certain categories of women should be discussed separately.
If you belong to the category of vegetarians, who do not accept not only meat, but also any other animal products (milk, for example), then you will definitely need an additional source of vitamin B12 is (2 micrograms per day) and D (400 IU per day), you do not dopoluchaet due to the nature of their diet.Plus the need to pay attention to the calorie content of food (most of the vegetarian dishes are low in calories, which is not the norm for pregnant women), and its value.And in general, who want to know what the easiest pregnancy and balanced nutrition to help.Because maybe should change for some time, your diet?So you will not risk the health of your baby.
Not all women immediately after receiving the news that will become mothers, throwing normal life.This also applies to professional sportsmen and women, leading an active lifestyle.Of course, with loads need to be careful.But nutrition during pregnancy in this case should be slightly different - more nutritious, because the future mother-athlete consumes more energy, respectively, needs to be more dense diet.It is necessary to increase the amount of carbohydrates in the food.
pregnant 16-year-old girl - it's not uncommon.From all the doctors can hear opinions that get pregnant at an early age is dangerous, because the body is still growing and he's too heavy load for him.But if it happened, then you need to pay attention to diet in the first place.Also, as in the case of athletes, the food should be sufficient caloric.
enormous loads experienced by the body during gestation 2 or more children, make it necessary to increase caloric intake (about 150 calories per day, depending on the BMI).Also, supplementation of folic acid is recommended to increase the dose to 1 mg per day.Also increases the need for vitamin B6.This means that you should not give up the fish and poultry, are very rich sources pirodoksin.
indigestion When toxicosis, poisoning and other unpleasant phenomena that cause rejection of food, should provide an additional intake of vitamin B6, which contributes to a better assimilation of proteins, so - alleviating ailments manifestations.In addition, it is recommended to split meals during early pregnancy - take liquid food and often need, but little by little, it is well to avoid episodes of nausea and vomiting.If all else fails, and all eaten and drunk rejected by the body should go to a hospital - an injection of vitamin preparations and intravenous glucose help to survive in this difficult period.
This pathology is caused by low levels of lactase - an enzyme which is essential for the digestion of lactose.Suffer this pathology are mainly people living in the northern latitudes, as well as residents of African and Asian countries.Lactose intolerance is dangerous because if it is not absorbed adequately calcium contained in dairy products.If their use occurs flatulence, diarrhea, painful cramps in the intestines.
With this disease should eat foods rich in calcium, but do not contain lactose.These areas include, for example, soybean milk.If there is still a lack of calcium (less, per diem intake of 600 mg), there is a sense in taking additional calcium tablets.In the case of residence in countries with cold climates, winter and rare walks in the fresh air, it should also take vitamin D (400 ME per day).