Diets For Weight Loss / / August 12, 2017
Long-term effects of low-carbohydrate Atkins diet
Two studies, whose results were published recently in the «Annals of Internal Medicine» magazine, lead is strong evidence that the low-carb Atkins diet (with a view to getting rid of excess fat without the negative impact on cholesterol levels)as effective as low-fat low-carb diet.Over 24 weeks, Dr. William Yancy (William Yancy) observed the changes in body weight and body composition, blood lipid levels and side effects in 120 overweight people.All of them were randomly divided into two groups.The first group was fed on the Atkins diet, the second - on the low-fat low-calorie diet beskholesterinovoy.Atkins low carbohydrate diet resulted in a greater weight reduction in blood triglycerides (fats dangerous, can cause heart disease) and increasing HDL (good cholesterol) compared to low-fat diet.
Although the level of LDL (harmful) cholesterol did not change, the twenty-fourth week in 30% of the participants adhering to the Atkins diet, found elevated LDL by 10% compared to baseline.Two people from the group of the Atkins diet discontinued participation in the experiment because of the dangerous rise of the level of blood lipids.Moreover, in this group were more common side effects such as constipation, headache, diarrhea and fatigue.Scientists have concluded that over the 24-week full of people who followed the Atkins low-carb diet lost more weight and burned more fat than low-fat fed the diet.However, the study pointed out that with such a diet is necessary to constantly monitor the level of lipids in the blood, because some people may suffer from the negative side effects.
second study low-carb Atkins diet showed similar results: the participants were randomly divided into two groups - the Atkins diet and the normal high carbohydrate low-fat diet.The observations were made during the year.The Atkins diet group observed a direct beneficial effect on triglycerides and good cholesterol (as well as the level of blood sugar - in a small subgroup of patients with diabetes).In a review of both studies Dr. Walter Willett (Walter Willet) from the Harvard School of Public Health (USA), said: "We can no longer ignore the low-carb diet.Dr. Atkins deserves credit for his research, thanks to which many people, reducing the consumption of carbohydrates, could take control of its own weight. "
high-protein low-fat diet or moderate-protein vysokozhirnye?
If the subject of the energy balance of fat consumption is reduced up to 30% of total calories, and instead of it accordingly increases the consumption of carbohydrates and proteins, the excess fat is burned faster and muscle mass is preserved better.Compared to traditional diets, after weight loss due to power on high-protein diets significantly improves blood sugar levels, insulin sensitivity and blood lipid profile.
But here the question arises: at the same low level of carbohydrates that effective for burning fat and maintaining overall health - High protein or low protein diet?Dr. Natalie Luscombe-Marsh (Natalie Luscombe-Marsh) from the University of Adelaide (Australia) compared the effect of two isocaloric diets (which differ in content of fats and proteins) to change the weight, body fat level, blood lipids, as well as appetite and energy after the test meals.The subjects randomly received either a low-fat high-protein diet, or vysokozhirnoe standard protein.The experiment consisted of 12 weeks and the energy deficit of the energy balance 4 weeks.57 obese people participated in the study.
The results showed that low-fat high-protein diets and diet vysokozhirnaya standard protein (much monounsaturated fat) is equally effective in reducing body weight, improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of heart disease.So, it becomes increasingly clear that the reduction in carbohydrate low-fat or high-protein diet umerennouglevodnoy may be useful to improve body composition in comparison with a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet.The experimental diet had no negative effect on the activity of the kidneys, blood pressure and markers of bone health.
High protein diet maintains muscle mass in conditions of energy deficit
Numerous studies have shown that high-protein diets enhance satiety of the body and thereby accelerate the burning of fat.Moreover, studies have shown a close relationship between the increase in protein intake and a reduced risk of hypertension and coronary heart disease.Expected side effects of high-protein diets are at least greatly exaggerated.
subject of a recent four-month study by Dr. Donald Lehman (Donald Layman) was the effect of the exercises and the two diets (high-protein and low protein high carbohydrate umerennouglevodnoy) on body composition and blood lipids in women in the process of weight loss.Diets were equivalent in calories and fats, but differ in protein content: 1.6 g per kilogram of body weight per day in high-protein group and 0.8 g per kilogram high carbohydrate group.Not surprisingly, participants in high-protein and high-protein group in conjunction with exercises - lost more weight and body fat and less lean body mass than the band of high carbohydrate intake and high carbohydrate intake combined with exercise.As expected, exercise promote fat burning and maintain muscle mass, so the diet in conjunction with exercise improved body composition.Scientists have made a conclusion that "This study once again proves the anti-catabolic action of a high level of protein intake on the background of a low caloric intake."
high-protein diets enhance weight control
Dr. Lezhon (Lejeune) from Maastricht University (Netherlands) was looking for an answer to the following question: Is the introduction of an additional protein in the diet to limit the weight gain after the loss of 5-10% can.130 overweight people ate for extremely low-calorie diet for four weeks.During the six-month period, followed by maintaining the achieved weight.At this stage, subjects were randomly divided into groups - protein (30 g protein per additional day in addition to the normal diet) and control.The first group showed less weight gain and a reduction in waist.Curiously, the weight gain in this group was composed mainly of dry weight, while the control group gained more and fat.
Nizkoglikemichnaya traditional low-fat diet is more effective than diet
glycemic index products shows just how quickly they raise blood sugar levels.Vysokoglikemichnaya food quickly digested, causing a significant rise in sugar.Glycemic load shows the total glycemic response to food.(Formula for calculating the glycemic load: Glycemic Index Percentage product number x in grams per serving).
During his study, Dr. Lahey (Lahaye) from Queens University (Canada) compared to 120 volunteers who were fed on a diet nizkoglikemichnoy, with 1434 patients, follow the well-known Canadian "Guidelines for a healthy diet."As expected, nizkoglikemichnaya diet was more effective than the "healthy".
- Study participants lost more weight in 6 months: 2.8 kg vs. weight gain of 0.2 kg.
- Waist decreased by 2.9 cm vs. 0.4 cm.
- picture level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and blood sugar was better.
- subjects maintained or even improved the initial results after a year of following the diet nizkoglikemichnoy.
is now clear that the traditional high carbohydrate low-fat diet is far from ideal.Although it is strongly recommend that Americans consume more whole grains rather than refined foods, it is unlikely to improve control of blood sugar levels.Many solid foods raise sugar just as refined.University of Sydney website dedicated to the glycemic index (.. Www qlecemicindex com), makes the following recommendations to reduce the glycemic load:
- Eat breakfast oatmeal, barley and bran
- eat less potatoes
- eat more fruits and vegetables
- include in the daily menua lot of green salad with vinegar dressing
Low-carb diet is effective for burning fat
Dr. Jeff Volek (Jeff Volek) from the University of Connecticut (USA) compared isocaloric effects of extremely low-carb diet (ketogenic) and high carbohydrate low-fat diet to burn fat andbody composition of men and women are overweight.Despite the significant difference in calories (cal 1855 against 1562 calories per day) men extremely low-carb diet had a greater effect.Five of them showed a 5-pound advantage in weight reduction.The body most women are also actively responded to the ketogenic diet.This was especially true of the torso area of fat deposits.Moreover, three men and four women gained weight and body fat mass after the transition to low-fat diet for a ketogenic, while none of the test subjects did not increase body fat after switching on the ketogenic diet.
Conclusion: extremely low-carbohydrate diets provide a "metabolic advantage" and greater weight loss and body fat compared to isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet.The study suggests that the number of calories may not be as decisive as the level of carbohydrates consumed.
Extremely low-carbohydrate diets and muscle anabolism
One legend Nutrition (nutritional science) states that the low-carb diet leads to progressive loss of muscle mass (muscle protein).Fortunately, the human body is much smarter than some of the "experts".Organism many animals incapable (or almost not able) to convert fatty acids to glucose (blood sugar), so that the main substrate glyukoneogenaza (formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate molecules) for them are amino acids (components of proteins) with little involvement of glycerol from triglycerides (originating fromfat tissue).Stored fat contains one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acid molecules.
However, when the level of mobilization of fatty acids from fatty fibers increases (for example, against the background of a very low-carbohydrate diet), the liver produces ketone bodies.Itself it can not dispose of them, so they are sent to the blood in other fibers for use as fuel.Simply stated, ketone metabolism can replace glucose utilization and thereby maintain muscle mass.That is, during the low-carb diet brain extracts energy from the fat reserves.
study Dr. Jeff Volek has examined the effect of 6 weeks of extremely low-carbohydrate diet on body composition.The results showed significant reduction in body fat in subjects (- 3.4 kg) and a marked increase in muscle mass (+1.1 kg).As expected, the low-carb diet led to a marked reduction in the level of insulin in the blood, what a correlation with a decrease in fat stores in the body.Cleavage of fat tissue is increased, and the level of ketones in the body stood up.
recent Dr. Harber experiment from the University of Michigan (USA) aimed to study the effect of extremely low-carbohydrate high-protein diet on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle (anabolism) and total protein degradation in the body.Eight volunteers took part in the test.Within two days they were fed a standardized diet (60% carbohydrates of the total calories, 30% fat and 10% protein).Then, for two weeks, subjects were switched to an extremely low-carbohydrate high-protein diet - 5% carbohydrate, 60% fat and 35% protein.
As a result, despite the considerably reduced carbohydrates and insulin levels drop, protein synthesis in skeletal muscle increased.However, increasing anabolism in skeletal muscle accompanied by an increase of protein decay in the body.What conclusion follows from this experience?He confirms that extremely low-carbohydrate high-protein diet does not cause progressive loss of muscle mass.The experiment also showed that this diet is not suitable for building muscles as strengthening muscle anabolism was accompanied by an increase in the level of protein decay in the whole body.
and, finally, the latest research of scientists from the State University of Bol (US) - it set itself the task to clarify how the carbohydrate status affects the stimulation anaboliticheskih signaling pathways in human skeletal muscle in response to exercise with weights.During the experiment, professional cyclists performed 30 repetitions of leg extensions at an intensity of 70% of the maximum one-rep, after a low-carb (2%) and high carbohydrate (77%) diet, which provided low or high muscle glycogen reserves, respectively.According to the report, "these results suggest that exercise in a depletion of glycogen, or energy shortages can disrupt protein transport mechanisms through the ACT system.In this case, adaptation to physical stress can significantly slow down. "
advantages of high-protein diets
Dr. McAuley (McAuley) from the University of Otago (New Zealand) conducted a study during which compared low-carb high-protein diet (no more than 20 grams of carbohydrates per day) High protein ( "zonal")traditional low-fat and high carbohydrate (at least 55% of total energy from carbohydrates).93 obese women have followed different diets to achieve weight loss and then maintain it for 12 months.
Six months later, the two alternative diets showed significant advantages over traditional high carbohydrate low-fat diet.They provided superior reduction in fat levels in the body, reducing the volume of the waist and falling levels of dangerous blood lipids.Despite initial improvement in the low-carb group, over the past six months, the participants showed an increase in fat mass and waist circumference (in contrast to the subjects fed the "zonal" and high carbohydrate low-fat diet).Ultimately, the best results provided a "zonal" diet - by the end of the twelfth month of weight and fat mass in subjects were on 3-4 kg less than the original.
According to the conclusions of scientists, "the study showed a significant advantage in the high-protein diet as an alternative to the traditional diet.In the long term, this diet has a positive effect on body weight, fat mass reduction and some other aspects of metabolic (insulin resistance).The results were comparable to the results of using pharmacological agents. "