Food / / March 30, 2016
thin live longer FULL
Currently, ended a series of long-term (20-40 years) observations of large groups of people to assess the relationship of body weight and mortality.It has been shown that people with thin BMI * (BMI) of less than 20 kg / m2, much earlier (12-14 years), and more often than people who are overweight (BMI of 25-29.9 kg / m2) from diecardiovascular disease, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Minimum incidence and the highest life expectancy observed in people with a BMI of 23-25 kg / m2.It is highly probable that, due to the fact that adipose tissue, according to new scientific data, synthesizes some hormones (such as estrogen - the female sex hormones) and other biologically active substances that contribute to the prevention of these diseases and the prevention of early death.And really, it is shown that women with overweight, obesity does not reach the size, much less develop breast cancer and osteoporosis.Overweight without obesity does not adversely affect theperformance of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and blood pressure in healthy men and women.Even foreign insurance companies at the end of the XX century stated the lowest mortality rates among those people who have a body weight greater than the current Western norms (BMI 18.5 kg / m2) by 10%.Thus, it is better to be chubby and happy than skinny and miserable.
• Body mass index is calculated using the formula: BMI = weight (kg): Height (in m) 2.For example: 60 kg (1.5 m) 2 = 60 kg: 2.25 m2 = 26.7 kg / m2.
products are harmful and useful
No food is absolutely bad or absolutely useful.It depends not only on the "dose", such as the application of drugs, but also ways of cooking, usage, state of health, age and other factors.Take, for example, milk - one of the main sources of calcium.Without it, just do not do children who have an intensive bone growth, pregnant women after 50, who often develop osteoporosis, patients with fractures.At the same time the milk itself, many adults suffer bad: often falls sharply with age activity of the enzyme lactase, which breaks down carbohydrates milk - lactose, which is a violation of the digestion of milk.What to do?It is necessary to use dairy products, in which lactose, and milk proteins already were split lactic acid microorganisms, that is, to use kefir, yogurt, cottage cheese, cheese.Most raw fruits and vegetables can not be used for stomach ulcers and acute gastritis.What about vitamin C, dietary fiber?It is necessary to use boiled vegetables, pureed fruit and vegetables without a peel, fruit of them, etc. That is, one must know -.. And when it is possible to have the maximum benefit for your body, when it is healthy and when - is sick.
NUTRITION our ancestors
Our ancestors were neither vegetarians or meat-eaters - they ate everything that was possible to catch, collect, dig, that is consumed as a vegetable, and animal food.Before there was agriculture "Cavemen" were feeding in hunting, fishing and gathering (gathering berries, nuts, honey, etc.).The proportion of animal food in the diet depend on the geographic and climatic conditions: the south (eg, in Africa), where the gathering season lasted almost throughout the year, it was lower in the north - more.However, quite without meat does not do any one tribe, because one killed a mammoth, or buffalo, even if hunting it lasted for several days - of course, more caloric foods, something the amount of fruits and insects, which could gather the women and children of thoseas several days.By the way, scientists believe that the consumption of animal protein has played a huge role in the development of the brain of Homo sapiens, and not only at the biochemical level: after all, to kill even small game requires much more ingenuity than to digsome spine.
«Healthy" nutrition close ancestors
Many people still complain that the good old days the food was natural, all to eat right and less painful.Yes, indeed, before people ate like a healthy food prepared from what they grew "in the garden and the garden," they were treated with folk remedies and lived himself fresh and healthy all of his short-lived 30-40 years.Such was the life expectancy in the XVII-XIX centuries.Heart attack, stroke and cancer was much less, because people do not live to the age when they develop the disease and die from infectious diseases (cholera, diphtheria, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and so on. N.).As for the fact that everyone was healthy food, too, there is doubt as the most nutritious meals thought the meat, and the more, the better.Even doctors prescribe to patients to eat more meat, and debilitated patients were recommended broth of beef or poultry fat for treatment and rehabilitation.Fruits and berries are also considered exotic food, while vegetables and cereals - food poor.So many people were dying of scurvy, beriberi disease and other diseases caused by the lack of nutritional vegetables, fruits and cereals, that is, lack of vitamins C, B and others.Secured population overeat meat and sweets, and the poor were the year on the "healthy" vegetables such as turnips and cabbage, bread and 1-2 types of cereals.Milk was only in the villages, the urban poor it could not afford.So in a healthy diet of our ancestors hard to believe.
water can not drink during meals and immediately after
Drinking water or other liquids during meals should theoretically slow down digestion in the stomach due to the dilution of gastric juice, but recent observations conducted in healthy people, have not confirmed this.It was found that all depends on the initial character of gastric secretion (concentration of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in the stomach) and the food composition.If there is a secretory insufficiency, the liquids during meals is better not to abuse it, but for a healthy person it does not matter.Advocates of healthy eating often refer to national traditions.However, most of them recommend drinking no later than 20-30 minutes before meals or not earlier than in 1.5-2 hours after a meal, forget that the peoples of different countries have long practiced drink liquids during meals.The differences are only consumed liquids:.. Water, diluted or undiluted wine, brew tea, diluted with low-fat milk drinks, etc. For example, in France it - table wine, for the United States - cold water, Japan - tea, which they drink upand during the meal.There is reason to believe that the issue of the use of water or other liquids during meals should be addressed individually.The exception is medical-table and healing mineral water drink that should be on the special indications and rules.
Multivitamins can take any
There are a huge number of multi-vitamin, multivitamin-mineral and other drugs that are sold without a prescription.Moreover, the number of different vitamins and minerals, some of which reach several tens.At first glance, it is quite good - in one product has all the necessary components, do not have to swallow a few pills or capsules.However it is not so easy, because the formulations of vitamins and minerals are present as pure chemicals and can interact at a chemical level with each other, including deactivate each other.In particular, the iron may oxidize ferrous vitamins A and E, and ascorbic acid - reacted with B vitamins, and whereby the amount of vitamins and their activity in such complexes are less than the stated parameters.Furthermore, there are competitive relationships between the individual minerals between certain vitamins, as well as between the former and in the human body.For example, there is a direct competition between some metals: iron, calcium, magnesium and zinc are competing with each other for simultaneous reception blood transport system;calcium and inhibit absorption of iron, manganese and zinc - copper.Excess Vitamin C, along with other troubles described above, inhibits the accumulation of vitamin A in the liver, increases the excretion of vitamins B2, B6, B12, copper deficiency contributes to the body.
Large doses of vitamin B1 and its coenzymes compete with pantothenic acid at the level of tissue proteins, reducing both the content and the amount of coenzyme A in the liver.Therefore, the "correct" and preparations should contain vitamin B1 and pantothenic acid.Along with the competition, and there are synergistic (mutually reinforcing each other's action) the relationship between biologically active compounds, and this too should be considered when selecting drugs.For example, vitamin D is required for a better absorption of calcium;Vitamin B1 improves the absorption and activity of magnesium;antioxidants such as vitamins A, E and C, enhance the effect of each other, and vitamin E increases the action of selenium.Vitamin C promotes better absorption of iron and chromium.Moreover, at chemical level (in preparation), the effect may be one (negative), and in the body - the other (on the contrary, positive).It was proved that with an increase in the number of components in the vitamin and mineral preparations and increases the number of possible interactions between the ingredients.This leads to the fact that many of the components begin to adversely affect one another at different levels.It should be noted that even very many aspects of such interaction is not fully understood at the present stage of development of scientific knowledge about the interaction of the individual active ingredients.Therefore, it seems appropriate separation of vitamins and minerals complex preparation on multiple medications (tablets or capsules) to reduce the possible negative and positive impacts of conservation.Thus, it is necessary to choose preparations where vitamins and minerals "spaced" in various capsules, and even better - to competing and minerals were different tablets.That is, take vitamins and minerals separately, while scientists have not determined - that can be combined, and what not.
New forms of vitamins - effervescent tablets - suitable not for everyone.For example, people suffering from gastritis or peptic ulcer in the acute stage, they can only worsen the condition.Finally, it is not necessary to seek to ensure that all known vitamins were part of the preparation.According to recent data of the Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the majority of Russia's population suffers from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), 30-40% - group B vitamins, beta-carotene, vitamin E. It is sufficient that in the preparation of these substances were.
modern diet.Misconceptions and myths
Excerpts from the book
Author: AMTS academician, Dr. med.Sciences Prof. VGLivonia