Food colorings , preservatives , emulsifiers , acidity regulators , acidulants, thickeners , stabilizers , flavor amplifiers , modified starches, flour improvers , disintegrants, flavorings Food
Food / / August 12, 2017
To make the color of the product supply and improve their kind used in the food industry, natural and synthetic dyes.The main aim in this case is to try to boost sales.Dyes did not affect the taste of food and the process of assimilation by the human body.Dyes are added to the lemonade, cola and similar drinks, sweets, puddings, ice cream, alcohol, margarine and cheese.Natural dyes are produced by extraction from a variety of fruits and vegetables such as red beet, sweet pepper, spinach and oranges.Artificial colorants synthesized chemically.Foods containing natural dyes, are considered, in general, non-hazardous to health.With respect to artificial dyes caution should be exercised.They may cause allergies and under certain conditions even cause cancer.It should be especially warned about the dangers of azo dyes (containing Alizarin).
dyes indicated as E 100 to 180, 579, 585.
Preservatives Preservatives are used to extend the shelf life of food products.Among them are also different natural and synthetic substances.Organic preservatives which include, for example, acetic acid or lactic acid, generally regarded as safe.Synthetic preservatives sometimes cause allergies, up to asthma attacks, headaches and nausea, and can even affect heredity.It is especially important to avoid foods that contain nitrates.In the industrial production of food additive nitrate in pickled products (salted fish, meat) is designed to suppress the vital activity of bacteria.In humans, the nitrates are converted into nitrates, which prevent absorption of oxygen, i.e.lead to oxygen starvation of the body.
preservatives assigned letters E 200 to 290, 1125.
preservatives, antioxidants designed to protect food from spoilage, and this is done by suppressing the reaction with oxygen.The best known antioxidants include ascorbic acid (vitamin C), which is synthesized by chemical means, but is harmless.Vitamin E as an antioxidant found in butter and margarine, and protects them from rancidity.It is doubtful whether eating foods with synthetic antioxidants.They cause, particularly in children, allergic response, and headaches.The letters
preservatives - E 300 to 322, 574.
With the help of emulsifiers may be mixed with foods such substances with which they normally do not mix, eg water and fats vozdhom.Thanks to emulsifiers water is deposited on the surface of the margarine, mayonnaise and desserts.Among the known natural emulsifiers can be mentioned, for instance, lecithin and fatty acids.They are considered harmless.In addition, by incorporating air food emulsifiers make products more texture thick, creamy or foamed.The letters
emulsifiers - E 322, 442, 470 by 495.
The name of these substances indicates that they regulate the acid content of the foodstuff.Scope of acidity regulators rather narrow, as a number of food products, which should neutralize the acidity level, generally small.Without exception, acidity regulators considered harmless.
acidity regulator assigned letters E 170, from 261 to 263, 500.
with acid producers seek to improve the taste of food.Acidity create a feeling of freshness.In addition, acids and bases are fillers.Usually used as acidulants substances of natural origin, which are therefore harmless.The letters
acidifiers - E 260, 270, 296, 297, 330, 334, 574.
thickeners and gelling additives
Strictly speaking, in the field of chemistry thickeners and gelling additives food products are different types of additives, butpractice, this difference can be neglected, since most have thickeners and gelling properties at the same time.Most known additives of this group are agar-agar, and are also pektin.Syuda modified potato and corn starches.Thickeners and gelling additives are used in the manufacture of jelly, marmalade and jams, puddings, desserts, ice cream, pastries, as well as in the production of sausages.Housewives, these substances are known as binding additives in soups, sauces and desserts.
thickeners and gelling agents are produced from various raw materials, such as algae, carob seed or apples.Most of thickeners of natural origin and are considered harmless, but some can cause digestive disorders, impair digestion of proteins
thickeners and gelling additives are designated letters E 400 to 464, with 1404 1450.
Thanks toits antimicrobial properties of stabilizers ensure the safety and permanence of food and the taste of food.By stabilizers include nitrites nitraty.Stabilizatory and widely used in the production of sausages and other meat products to maintain stability tsveta.Odnako in the products themselves but also in the gastrointestinal tract of nitrate and nitrite to form new connections of the called nitrosamines that cause cancer.Installed as other side effects of stabilizers, for example, they violate the digestion of food and reduce soprotivalyaemost to infections.
stabilizers prisvoevny letters E to 249 252, with 461 by 476, with 575 by 585 and 1404 by 1450.
additives used in the food industry for the introduction of metallionov in aqueous solutions in order to fix the color, flavorand product consistency.Some of these compounds also inhibit the bitter taste of sweeteners.Most of the locking harmless additives, phosphates may only cause hyperactivity in children.
fixing additives marked with the letters E 325 341 472, with 576 for 578.
Amplifiers of taste
are used mainly in the production of meat products and sausages, as well as in the confectionery industry.The name of these substances indicates that they are intended to intensify the flavor of food quality.The most well-known flavor enhancer glutamate refers.Additives of this group can not be considered completely harmless.In persons with increased sensitivity after eating such foods can develop the so-called "Chinese" syndrome accompanied by headaches, a feeling of squeezing the temples and rigidity (immobility) cervical pozvankov.In experiments with maltol conducted on animals, marked changes in the blood picture and functional disorders of the nervous tissue.The letters
flavor enhancer - E with 620 637.
are universal action.They can be used as:
- gelling additives
- stabilizers, emulsifiers
- glazed additives
Modified starches are used in products in which it is necessary to adjust the so-called "mouth feel".Animal experiments proved that these additives cause the deposition of calcium (lime) in the pelvis and kidney.
The letters modified starches - E with 1404 1450.
They are a small group of additives designed to improve the quality of products baking.In an industrial scale with their help possible to increase qualities such as resistance test of gluten in the gap, the ability to batch fermentation and stability.In general, the baked flour improvers enhance the quality of the test.It can be called askarbinovuyu acid Notable improvers.During baking it turns into vitamin C. From a medical point of view, the concentration of the additive does not matter.Cysteine increases ductility formed dough and is used mainly in the production of biscuits.All flour improvers for toxicologically harmless.
Litera improvers Flour - E300.
known not only producers, but each owner.They help test approach, loosen it.However, apparently furnace powders not so harmless as it considered.Soda, baking soda and potash really not dangerous, they can continue to be used for the preparation of dough for pies.However, ammonium carbonate, used in baking Christmas cake and sour sodium aluminophosphate (alum) inflict a considerable damage to health.The letters
furnace powders - E 500 to 504, 541, 575.
gases used in greenhouses and packing
Many of these gases are integral parts of the air we breathe.Some of them belong to a number of noble gases, the effects of which are food interactions can not opasatsmya.all gases used in greenhouses and packaging harmless.The letters
gases - E290 with 938 on 948.
These additives include modified starches, which generally form their own separate group of additives.Modified starches are introduced into the coatings, they also increase the shelf life of food products and protect them from desiccation.Typically, problems arise here.However, in animal studies, the link between vyevlena enriched feed phosphates and calcium deposits (liming) in the pelvis and kidney.
glaze assigned letters E with 1405 by 1450.
Humidifiers are used in the confectionery and bakery industry in order to maintain the product in a sufficiently moist, and in particular, the soft state.This is achieved by dobavok- hygroscopic humectants, which act as sweeteners sorbitol and mannitol.Due to the fact that these two agents simultaneously have a laxative effect, they should be used in limited quantities.The letters
humidifiers - £ 420 for 422.
foaming additives and defoamers
As the blowing agent used mostly treated cellulose ether.Blowing agents used in the manufacture of bakery products, as well as fillers are in the dietary produktah.Po fact, foaming additives are harmless, although they can both promote digestion, and brake it.
Defoamers are used to protivopolpzhnymi tselyami.Uzhe their very name suggests, they are designed to prevent foaming of the product in its packaging and use.A striking example of such additives can serve as a dimethylpolysiloxane, which is used, for example, to suppress foaming fats used for deep-frying.Defoamers are also harmless.
foaming additives are designated by letters - E 461 at 475, defoamers - E900.
-melters support the product's ability to swell support emulsifying properties of proteins thus prevent product separation and isolation from it fat or water.Used mainly in the production of cheese, preventing the separation of curd and whey mololchnoy fat.In general, the salt-melters is considered to be harmless, but research is underway, designed to check suspicions that potassium phosphate can cause hyperactivity in children.The letters
salt-melters - £ 325 for 341, 472b.
Increase product weight.A typical example is chewing gum and diet products.To prevent adhesion of common salt used magnesium carbonate.Sometimes fillers act as thickeners, stabilizers and disintegrants.
fillers are designated by letters - E170 with 460 at 465.504.
Designed to prevent mixing of components or sticking them in clumps.Examples are substances used to prevent adhesion of common salt or baking powder sahara.Dobavka improves fluidity produkta.V generally considered safe.The letters
baking powder - E170, 470a and b, 504, 578.
This is a large group of additives.They are very widely used in the food industry.Most of them are harmless, but may prevent alginates micronutrient absorption in the intestine and degrade protein digestion.In animal experiments carrageenan induced intestinal pathology, altered immune response.The powder is produced from the seeds of guarana contain toxic residues, such as hydrocyanic acid.
They contain approximately one-fourth of the food product.Consumers and manufacturers believe that the flavoring additive improves the taste of food.Their use can also be explained by the fact that during processing natural smells of raw materials, tend to be unstable.Large food manufacturers have special laboratories, which employ chemists, engineers and specialists flavors.Industry produces flavorings as such, but also uses them for production of drinks, ice cream, chewing gum, candies, puddings, sauces and ready meals.
Unlike other additives, flavorings do not have individual names in the international practice is not indicated as E. Typically, the packaging simply indicates the presence of the flavoring product.Aramotizatory are divided into the following groups:
- natural aromatizatory- produced from raw materials of plant or animal origin, with the help of enzymes, natural or mokrobiologicheskih technologies.In these processes may additionally participate dyes and preservatives, as well as flavor enhancers and antioxidants.Natural flavors are extremely expensive and are used only in cases where there is no opportunity to develop fragrances, flavorings or artificial;
- aromatic ekstrakty- extremely rare, are concentrated natural flavors.Their chemical composition is still unknown;
- fragrances, flavorings, - have a laboratory origin.Dolozhny have a similar chemical structure to the natural;
- artificial aromatizatory- have nothing to do with the natural.As a purely chemical compounds, often fully reproduce the natural analogue, or even exceed it.
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