Feeding a child .How to eat schoolchildren and students
Children's Doctor Conversations / / August 12, 2017
Conversation fourth.About nutrition preschool and school
Talk about how the children should be fed pre-school and school age.Why is it so important questions of modern children's food?You all know how often children are now found in a variety of chronic diseases.Already at an early age are formed such chronic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, such as chronic gastritis, chronic cholecystitis, biliary dyskinesia, and others.In the formation of these chronic lesions of the digestive system, as well as other diseases (allergic lesions of the respiratory system, skin), considerable importance is poor nutrition.
& gt;Sausages and sausage are dangerous for health!
necessary to build the power so that the products are not used contributed to the emergence of diseases.And, sadly, now accounts for just exclude those products that we often eaten, since they do not require a long processing.Most mothers work, they have no time and effort to prepare homemade food, and they are widely used semi-finished products such as frankfurters and sausages, sandwiches, etc.But for some reason they can not be constantly there, especially children?
Around the middle of the 70s on we fell shaft chronic gastrointestinal diseases in children of preschool and school age.If earlier peak of peptic ulcer disease in schoolchildren accounted for 14-15 years (as a rule, it suffered the boys), in these years he moved to 7-8 years.Many doctors believe that the blame for the stress associated with entering school, especially as the patients were greater among boys, not previously attended kindergartens (home children).However, all this can not be explained only by the stress of school, because since then the situation in our schools more or less did not change significantly.
& gt;The growth of digestive diseases in schoolchildren
mass trials in which I participated, revealed chronic diseases of the digestive system among the many students that were considered healthy.We came to a regular Moscow school and carefully watched all the children who are often marked abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, nausea, or other symptoms of the defeat of the digestive system.It was found that 25% of them require additional examination.We managed to be hospitalized and to examine only the most "suspicious", and among them found two patients with peptic ulcer disease and seven patients with a total lesion of the gastrointestinal tract (from the esophagus to the rectum).The remaining met in most cases combined chronic lesions of the stomach and small intestine or colon, and biliary tract.Similar information began to arrive from other cities (St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Yekaterinburg, and others.).At the same time in the available literature, such foreign posts absent.
& gt;Nitrogenous fertilizers - the cause of many diseases
What happened to our children?In the literature, many risk factors listed, contributing to the development of these diseases in our country.. Over-eating, monotonous diet, still life, etc. All of these factors have acted before, but the rise of these diseases began in the 70-80s.It turned out that at this time of nitrogen fertilizer began to massively used in our agriculture.This, apparently, and is the main reason.And to date the therapeutic departments of hospitals of large cities occupied mainly by patients with chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract.
& gt;Avoid giving children the liver!
Unfortunately, now account for the power to exclude from the children of such a product, as the liver.If earlier we will have included liver in food, children suffering from anemia, but today it is necessary to refuse it: all the chemicals accumulate in the liver of animals, which are so full of grass eaten by them.
& gt;The harmful nitrates and nitrites?
What is the harmful effect of nitrates and nitrites in the human body?These compounds, which are also mandatory component in the manufacture of our food industry meat products and sausages, destroy the gastric mucosa.Even more frightening is that they are carcinogenic.Under the influence of their chromosomal complement of healthy human cells can change and become like a cancer cell chromosome set.
I remember my first coming to a children's hospital in 1955.Then in the therapeutic department of children with chronic lesions of the digestive tract almost was not.And when I left for retirement, we do not know where to put new arrivals in 1988.Opened specialized gastrotsentry, but they could not cope with the flow of patients.
And do not cope so far.
& gt;What about vegetables?
can I say, "Well, we exclude harmful to children's products, such as sausages, but what about the vegetables?"Indeed, the question is legitimate, and clearly answer it is currently difficult.Vegetables can be soaked in cold water (30-40 minutes).Another useful but soaking, cook finely chopped vegetables into slices.However, about 50% goes into the broth nitrate.When cooking potatoes "in uniform" in the water leaves 21-26% of nitrates, and when cooked peeled potatoes - about 50-56%.About 10% of the peel nitro accumulates in fruits and vegetables.Therefore it is better now to give the children peeled apples, pears, cucumbers.
& gt;Cabbage and carrots
The cabbage is the greatest amount of nitrates in the surface of green cabbage leaves and cobs.In carrot nitrates accumulate in the rod.It is believed that if the rod is much lighter than the rest of the carrots, then that carrots contain a lot of harmful substances and it is better not to give to children in the form of cheese.
& gt;Long cucumbers
Still want to warn you: be careful with fresh cucumbers, which are sold in stores all year round.These long, lost their normal shape of cucumbers in recent years have become a constant source of poisoning in children.
When pickling and marinating nitrates partially lost when blanching, partially transformed into the brine.A canning about 15-20% "evaporates" in the process of sterilization.
& gt;Most cereals are safe!
turns out the least amount of harmful substances, including nitrogen compounds, as well as radioactive elements.contained in cereals (cereal grains).So do not forget about the porridge!They have a lot of the necessary for growth, well-digestible vegetable protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals.To increase the B vitamins can be added to porridge raw bran or yeast (one teaspoon).
& gt;Forest and wild berries
All children need fresh fruit.If they are available to you, use the forest and wild berries - their people have not had time to spoil fertilizers.Zagotovte cranberries for the winter more (it is well preserved in the cold), blueberries, cranberries.Make preparations from garden berries: blackcurrant, raspberry, buckthorn, etc.Vitamins in them enough.
What place should take meat products in the diet of children?Now the children we get meat every day, and more than once a day.In this ever convinced, questioning the parents of affected children to their diet.As a rule, today the main products of our food - flour products (pasta, white bread) and meat.In school lunches often a meat broth, meatballs, sausages.
& gt;"Meat myth"
Argued that only meat products can provide everything necessary for the growing organism and satisfy him that the meat dishes are useful both old and young, sick and healthy.We have to observe how in children's hospitals and at four meals for breakfast, lunch and dinner almost always give the meat dishes.And there's nothing can not be done, because in the absence of meat from the parents or patients begin to flow to go complaints about bad food.
And how do eat right?This is a very serious matter.It is necessary to consider not only the environment, but also the climate, geographical location, religious beliefs of each people.
& gt;Russian traditions limit meat eating
Russia has always been taken very long interruptions in the reception of animal food.First of all, these are two mandatory long post: Christmas and great.In addition, throughout the year on a weekly basis on Wednesdays and Fridays, the faithful (almost all men) also did not eat meat meal.They ate porridge, vegetables, berries, mushrooms.I want to remind you that if the quality of meat and dairy products was significantly higher than at present.How do we do now?Should not return to the past experience?Very many diseases could be avoided by organizing food properly.
& gt;Looking for vegetarian days!
children is helpful to have at least two vegetarian days a week, and in the remaining days of meat dishes should be used no more than once a day.I say children will be hungry.No, vegetarian days - not hungry days.They unloading.These days it is easier to digest food, it does not need the hard work of the entire digestive tract.
& gt;Vegetarianism protects against chronic diseases
Try to occasionally change the day with the usual diet to a vegetarian day.You make sure that the intestines begin to work normally, such unpleasant phenomena disappear as bloating, belching, heaviness in the right upper quadrant, constipation.But this - the signs of violation of the digestion of food, which very often leads to the emergence of diseases such as gastritis, colitis, cholecystitis, etc.This power will protect children against many chronic diseases of the digestive, respiratory and cardiovascular systems, and especially - from allergic conditions.
& gt;Vessels should be protected from childhood!
You may ask: "Why we are now talking about the defeat of the cardiovascular system For sclerosis and its complications - heart attack - a lot of old people?"No, currently there are infarcts and young.Several years ago, at a meeting in Moscow Society of Cardiology showed sections of the arteries of children and adolescents who died in the disaster.On the walls of the arteries and aorta were detected signs of the formation of these sclerotic lesions.That's when our time begin vascular lesions in humans!That's why their prevention should begin in childhood.
& gt;Typical food of today's students is unacceptable
As usual feed school children today?In the morning - a sandwich with sausage, day - meat dinner in the evening - sausage with garnish, almost daily - ice cream, often with fat cream cakes, sweets.And all this at a low physical activity!And we wonder why we have so many people with metabolic disorders, obesity, asthma, cardiovascular disease.Of course, we can not completely deprive children of sweets, cakes, ice cream.However, these products should not be used daily, they must be only on the holiday table.
There is a truth that needs to know every mother is not so important, how much to eat a child is more important - how much he can learn!In this regard, let's talk about the organization of the process of child nutrition.Desire is there when people had time to work, move.At this point, it begins to be activated stomach enzymes to digest food.The pleasant smell and sight of food, the greater the activity of the enzymes in the stomach and the stronger the feeling of hunger.
& gt;Morning lack of appetite
And as we normally feed the children?The child just got out of bed.As a rule, it is not yet quite awake, not swooping.Desire is at it yet.A mother in the morning rushing to work and begins to force-feed the child.The kid was nervous, because of this he did not secrete enzymes spazmiruyutsya gall bladder and bile does not go for the digestion of food.My mother believes that he no appetite, but you can not let him go home hungry!
& gt;Do not solicit appetite duress!
Is it so afraid of hunger?It is better not to eat a piece of bread with an appetite, carefully chewing it than a parent scream - early breakfast, which is unlikely to be digested.If eating becomes a torment for the mother and child, the child may have an aversion to food.In order for him to have an appetite, you need a quiet environment.It is necessary to teach baby to chew slowly and quietly, eating should be a pleasure for him.
& gt;Why is it important not to rush while eating?
Digestion of food begins in the mouth, where saliva is released enzyme amylase, which is already in the mouth begins to break down carbohydrates.The slower and calmer food processing goes in the mouth, the better it is digested in the stomach.Furthermore, the saliva wets the bolus, and it is easier to pass through the esophagus.Thus, the main thing - to teach the child to chew.Worst of all, when a child is in a hurry and swallow pieces.These pieces of poorly digested, and the body learns almost nothing.And then the undigested food passes into the duodenum, small intestine and colon - and injure them.
& gt;Empty plate - not always a good thing!
During the meal can not distract the baby toys, fairy tales, etc.And if he refuses to eat, then maybe he is not hungry.But the mother wants to feed him.She reads it at best, and at worst - angry at him.A baby's mouth opens automatically, and there it flows into the food.Mother comforted themselves that a plate was empty and it seems that the baby will be fed.And he was not hungry.He could not digest.He made the first step to a gastrointestinal pathology.
& gt;Why should avoid overfeeding?
appetite decreases and overfed children.Their endlessly stuffed with all sorts of delicious dishes.They do not know the feeling of hunger, and thus do not know when his positive emotions quenching.I once had to treat the child from anorexia (lack of appetite).The kid grew up in a wealthy family, where there was no want of anything, the family was able to buy such products, which are not available in regular stores.In the morning, the child was given sandwiches with black and red caviar, lunch was offered boiled tongue, but he refused to eat.The parents were in despair, because he could not eat for days.He lost weight, his tortured constipation.We decided to put it in our hospital for examination.the house was allowed to bring only fruit and vegetables to prepare fresh juice: Parents one condition was delivered.Baby received before meals diluted juices (no enzyme addition we were not appointed), I ate our porridge, walked, slept, ieI led a normal life.Two weeks later he was eating with delight our hospital food.All the results of the survey have shown that the baby is healthy.He just overfed, he does not know the feeling of hunger.
& gt;It is necessary to take into account the temperament
And more.Digestion of food in humans is associated not only with the environment, but also depends on his temperament.Scientists have studied the enzymatic activity of children living in an orphanage.It turned out that children choleric warehouse, which have been planted for food immediately after a walk, could not calm down for a long time, revolved and bad eating.The food they digested poorly.And children phlegmatic temperament after walking quietly sat at the table, intently eating.Their food is digested well.Look closely to her child, perhaps after a walk he'd better sit back, relax, and then just there.And best of all to talk to him about the news at school and wait until he asks for lunch.
& gt;When anorexia says about the disease?
only in cases when a child refuses to eat in a relaxed and friendly environment and satisfies hunger slices of bread or your favorite dishes, you need to think if he was ill.Then you must first find out whether he had any digestive tract diseases, infection with worms or other diseases.
& gt;How to keep your appetite?
child who refuses to eat in the morning, I would suggest to have a drink.Glass compote, fruit drinks, milk or yogurt - that the child prefers.Some morning, for example, prefer to eat apples.
In the second conversation, I have already given an example of a diet that helps to make food fun for the child.Due to the importance remind her again.