Group child's blood
Child Development / / March 25, 2016
Inheritance blood group baby
At the beginning of the last century, scientists proved the existence of four blood groups.As a child inherited blood group?
Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner, mixing the blood serum of some people with red blood cells taken from the blood of others, found that when certain combinations of red blood cells and serum is a "bonding" - clumping of red blood cells and clot formation, while others - not.
Studying the structure of red blood cells, Landsteiner discovered a special substance.He divided them into two categories, A and B, highlighting the third, which took the cells in which it was not them.Later, his pupils - A. and A. von Dekastello Shturli - found red blood cells containing markers A- and B-type at the same time.
The studies originated the system of division by blood group, which became known as ABO.This system we still use today.
- I (0) - blood group is characterized by the absence of antigens A and B;
- II (A) - in the presence of antigen set A;
- III (AB) - The antigens;
- IV (AB) - antigens A and B.
This discovery allowed to avoid losses during transfusions caused by the incompatibility of the blood of patients and donors.The first successful transfusion carried out before.Thus, in the medical history of the XIX century described a successful blood transfusion maternity.After receiving a quarter of a liter of blood, she said she felt "as if life itself gets into her body."
But before the end of the XX century, such manipulations were isolated and were carried out only in case of emergency, sometimes bringing more harm than good.But thanks to the discoveries of Austrian scientists blood transfusions have become much safer procedure would save many lives.
AB0 system turned the presentation of scientists about the properties of the blood.Further study scientists genetics.They proved that the principles of the child's blood group inheritance are the same as for other characteristics.These laws were formulated in the second half of the XIX century, Mendel, based on experiments with peas familiar to all of us in school textbooks of biology.
Inheritance blood group of the child under the law of Mendel
- According to the laws of Mendel, parents with I blood group will be born children who have no antigens A and B type.
- The couple with I and II - children with appropriate blood groups.The same situation is typical for groups I and III.People with
- IV group can have any children with blood group except I, regardless of what type of antigens present in their partner.
- most unpredictable inheritance, child blood group under the alliance with the owners of II and III groups.These children may be in any of the four blood groups with equal probability.
- exception to the rule is the so-called "Bombay phenomenon."Some people are present in the phenotype of A and B antigens, but do not appear phenotypically.However, this is extremely rare and mostly Hindus, for which he received his name.
Inheritance Rh factor
a baby with Rh-negative in a family with, at best, Rh positive parents is deeply puzzling, at worst - distrust.Reproaches and doubts about the fidelity of his wife.Oddly enough, nothing exceptional in this situation do not.There is a simple explanation for such a sensitive issue.
Rh factor - lipoprotein is located on the membranes of red blood cells in 85% of people (they are considered Rh-positive).In his absence, talk about Rh-negative blood.These figures are denoted Rh Latin letters with a "plus" or "minus" respectively.For studies of rhesus usually considered one pair of genes.
- positive Rh factor is denoted by DD or Dd is the dominant feature, and the negative - dd, recessive.When the union of people with heterozygous presence of rhesus (Dd) their children will be Rh positive in 75% of cases and negative in the remaining 25%.
Parents: Dd x Dd.Children: DD, Dd, dd.Heterozygosity occurs as a result of the birth of a child Rhesus conflict in Rh-negative mother and may be stored in the genes over many generations.
centuries, parents can only guess what will be their child.Today, there is a glimpse of the wonderful far.Through ultrasound, you can find out the sex and some features of the anatomy and physiology of the infant.
Genetics determines probable eye and hair color, and even the presence of a musical ear of the baby.All these features are inherited in Mendelian and divided into dominant and recessive.Brown eye color, hair with small curls and even the ability to roll tongue tube are signs dominant.Most likely, the child will inherit them.
Unfortunately, the dominant features also include a tendency to early baldness and graying, short-sightedness and a gap between his front teeth.
By rank recessive gray and blue eyes, straight hair, fair skin, mediocre musical ear.The manifestation of these symptoms are less likely.
boy or ...
many centuries in a row the blame for the lack of an heir in the family laid on a woman.To achieve the goal - the birthday boy - women have resorted to diet and calculated the favorable days for conception.But look at the problem from the point of view of science.Genital human cells (eggs and sperm) have a half set of chromosomes (ie their 23rd).22 of them are the same in men and women.It differs only the last pair.In women, it is the chromosomes XX and XY in males.
So the probability of the birth of a child of a particular sex is entirely dependent on the chromosomes of the sperm, who was able to fertilize the egg.Simply put, for the sex of the child meets ... Dad!
Inheritance of blood groups
Table inheritance of blood child, depending on the blood group of his father and mother
|Mom + Dad||baby's blood group : options (in%)|
|I + I||I (100%)||-||-||-|
|I + II||I (50%)||II (50%)||-||-|
|I + III||I (50%)||-||III (50%)||-|
|I + IV||-||II (50%)||III (50%)||-|
|II + II||I (25%)||II (75%)||-||-|
|II + III||I (25%)||II (25%)||III (25%)||IV (25%)|
|II + IV||-||II (50%)||III (25%)||IV (25%)|
|III +III||I (25%)||-||III (75%)||-|
|III + IV||-||I (25%)||III (50%)||IV (25%)|
|IV + IV||-||II (25%)||III (25%)||IV (50%)|
Table 2. Inheritance of Rh blood group system,child possible, depending on the blood group of the parents.
Rh (+) rh (-) Rh (+) Any Any rh (-) Any Rh-negative