Food / / August 12, 2017
role and importance of vitamins
Vitamins are active substances, the daily use of which causes the coordinated work of the whole organism.
Unlike nutrients, vitamins not supply energy.In the human body vitamins come predominantly from food or synthesized by bacteria inhabiting in the intestine.The primary source of vitamins are plants, but they also contain animal products, such as meat (especially during the inwards, i.e. entrails), eggs and dairy products.Some vitamins are found in nature in the form of so-called pro-vitamins, others are part of the co-enzymes.
Vitamins play an important role as antioxidants.The human body does not synthesize vitamins except vitamin D, which via a number of intermediate stages is produced in the body when exposed to sunlight.Other vitamins must come from food.Lack of food leads to deficient states and thereby triggers various diseases.An overdose of vitamins is also dangerous.Typical diseases caused by vitamin deficiency include scurvy (scurvy), beriberi (B1 vitamin deficiency), pellagra, anemia and rickets.
With a balanced diet all the vital vitamins enter the body in sufficient quantities, so a healthy person does not need any additional reception of vitamins in the form of special preparations.The need for vitamins depends on many factors.Children, adolescents, pregnant women and nursing mothers, professional athletes, persons engaged in physical labor, as well as elderly people in need of increased amounts of vitamins.
Smoking and alcohol consumption also requires an increase in consumption of vitamins.This applies to persons in a state of stress, and patients who have to take a lot of different drugs.Vitamins are particularly important when taking antibiotics, which disrupt the bacterial background intestine, as well as vitamins and provitamins located in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract).
Some vitamins are in a rather complex relationship.For example, vitamin E, vitamin A stabilizes tetrahydrofolic acid is produced using only vitamin C, which in turn requires receiving iron.Beta-carotene is absorbed only while taking fat.
vitamin content in our food is extremely heterogeneous.For example, in meat depends on the time of year, the age and feed consumption by an animal.Plants also vary the amount of vitamins.Are important soil type, plant varieties, fertilizers used, maturity, climate, crop harvesting technology, its transportation and storage.Is defined herein as a cooking technique.
Provitamins are provisional stage of the synthesis of vitamins.In humans, provitamins are converted into biologically relevant form.Vitamins regulate vital functions of the body and perform a protective function.They are devoid of any nutritional value, but without them is impossible metabolism.Furthermore, they increase the performance and tone, but also improve health.
There are fat- and water-soluble vitamins.Fat-soluble vitamins accumulate in certain organs and tissues.For transporting liquid media in this type of organism needs vitamins protective shells.Water-soluble vitamins are found in all water-based environments of the body, ie,practically everywhere, primarily in the blood.Unused organism soluble vitamins do not accumulate, but simply derived from it.
Below is a list of all the vitamins in parentheses their terminological designation.
By fat soluble vitamins include:
- vitamin A (retinol)
- vitamin the D (calciferol)
- vitamin E (tocopherol)
- vitamin K (phylloquinone)
By soluble vitamins include:
- vitamin B1 (thiamine)
- vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
- vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
- vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
- vitamin H (biotin)
- folic acid
- pantothenic acid
Inthe literature often mentions terms such as B9 (more folic acid name), B10 (a blend of B vitamins), B15 (pangamic acid), B17 (amygdalin, an alternative drug in the treatment of cancer), F (a mixture of polyunsaturated fatty acids).M (folic acid obsolete designation) and P (plant flavonoids).For proper vitamins, these substances do not belong, they are vitamin-containing substances.
Vitamin A (retinol) and the corresponding pro-vitamin beta-carotene found only in plants - fruits of yellow color (apricots, yellow peaches) and green leafy vegetables.Retinol animal origin included in the milk and liver.The walls of the intestines of beta-carotene is converted to vitamin A, which is via the bile acid is absorbed together with fat accumulates in the liver.
Vitamin A deficiency leads to night blindness (night blindness).At an advanced stage of developing actinic accelerated epithelial clouding of the lens (cataract), which leads to blindness.Other side-effects are hoarseness, inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, bronchitis, and kidney stones.The average daily requirement for vitamin A is 1.1 mg.Pregnant and lactating women need more of this vitamin.
Vitamin D (calciferol) refers to a group of steroids.The most important forms of calciferol are vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3;Both these forms of body synthesizes from provitamins ergosterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol under the influence of the sun's ultraviolet rays.Vitamin D is found in mushrooms, dairy products and eggs.calciferol high concentration part of the marine fish liver.Vitamin D regulates calcium levels in the blood plasma.
Deficiency Vitamin D - a rare phenomenon and not caused by insufficient intake of his food, and as a result of sunlight deficiency, which leads to rickets in children and adults - a softening of the bones.Overdosing dangerous leaching of calcium phosphate and bone tissue.Excretion of calcium and phosphate are deposited in the kidney and blood vessels.Increased need for vitamin D is characteristic only for children.Adults are considered sufficient, on average 0.5-10 mg of vitamin D per day.
Vitamin E belongs to a group of 7 herbal vitamins.They are resistant to elevated temperatures, their molecules consist of chrome ring and unsaturated hydrocarbon chains.Most vitamin E in wheat seedlings and seeds of cotton;it is also found in corn, sunflower and soybean oils.Vitamin E is particularly effective in oily environments.It necessarily involved the assimilation of bile acid.In humans, vitamin E does not undergo any changes.Function tocopherol is the neutralization of harmful and toxic substances entering the food.
action of this group of vitamins has not been fully investigated, but it is possible to take for granted that certain vitamin E deficiency in infants is a consequence of malnutrition when artificial feeding.The consequences of vitamin E deficiency include hyperkeratosis (increased keratinization of the skin), impaired vision and coordination.The daily requirement for vitamin E is 10-20 mg of alpha-tocopherol.
In humans, vitamin K (phylloquinone) is also absorbed in conjunction with fats (lipids) and with the participation of bile acid.Vitamin K1 is contained in all green plants and K2 - bacterially produced by the liver.During normal diet of vitamin deficiency does not arise as it is contained in sufficient quantities in our food.The reason for the possible deficit phylloquinone may be malabsorption of fat, against which develops a tendency to bleeding, slow blood clotting.The daily requirement for vitamin K has not been studied.Normally own reserve of this vitamin in the body lasts for 2-6 weeks.The estimated dose is 0.001-2.0 mg per day.
Vitamin B1 (thiamine) provides the absorption of carbohydrates.It is not resistant to heat, alkalis and oxygen.Thiamine is found in all plant and animal products, especially its much yeast, wheat germ, heart, liver and kidneys.Symptoms of thiamine deficiency include loss of appetite, fatigue, tachycardia, and at an advanced stage - beriberi.The daily requirement is - 0.10-0.12 mg.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) absorbed the intestinal mucosa after its interaction with the phosphorus excreted from the body by the kidneys.Vitamin B2 is contained in all products of plant and animal origin, and in increased amounts in yeast, liver and cereals seedlings.In healthy people, there is no deficiency of this vitamin, because it is produced in sufficient quantity bacteria inhabiting the intestines.Riboflavin deficiency leads to photophobia, in rare cases - inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes, and gastrointestinal disorders work.The daily requirement for riboflavin is 1.5-2.5 mg.
The structure of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) include such active ingredients as the piridoksol, pyridoxamine and pyridoxal.Vitamin B6 is an essential coenzyme involved in the metabolism of amino acids, found in nearly all foods, so deficiency - a rare phenomenon.Vitamin B6 deficiency results in a loss of appetite, nausea and sometimes in increased sensitivity to pain.We have already mentioned that the vitamin B6 plays an important role in the uptake of amino acids, so the need for it depends primarily on the amount of protein in the diet.On the assimilation of 100 g of proteins takes approximately 1.5-2.0 mg of vitamin B6 per day.
molecule of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is made up of 4 pyrrole rings, grouped around the cobalt atom.Vitamin B12 is connected with the glycoproteins in the stomach, and then absorbed in the small intestine.One of the functions of vitamin B12 is the participation of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, which is the carrier of genetic information.Vitamin B12 is found only in animal products, mainly in the liver, kidneys and egg yolks.Cobalamin is also synthesized in the gut, but is excreted in the urine, so the body can not use it.
Deficiency of vitamin B12 leads to pernicious anemia - a form of anemia.In addition, it may be disturbed coordination, develop diarrhea.Often cobalamin deficiency provoked helminth infection, in particular the broad tapeworm.Normally, your own supply of vitamin B12 is consumed by the body within 3-5 years, so the first deficiency symptoms are not immediately apparent.The daily requirement for cobalamin is about 5 mg.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is one of the most famous and most often purchased at a pharmacy.It improves the immune system and accelerates healing of wounds.In the body, it is not synthesized.Vitamin C is absorbed in the stomach, where it undergoes dehydrogenation and blood is then delivered to each cell of an organism.Excreted through the kidneys.Vitamin C is involved in redox processes in the hydrolysis of proline and lysine amino acids and is an important component of collagen biosynthesis.
Vitamin C is found mainly in fruits and vegetables, especially a lot of it in sweet peppers, tomatoes, potatoes, cauliflower, spinach, sauerkraut, parsley, lemons, grapefruits, kiwi and bananas.In smaller amounts it is found in milk and liver.Not resistant to high temperatures: in boiling process half of its number of destroyed.The symptoms of ascorbic acid deficiency - pain in bone, heart rhythm disturbances, slow wound healing, low blood pressure and scurvy.
minimum daily requirement for vitamin C is 100 mg.Professional athletes, smokers and sick people need more askorbinki.Receiving high doses of vitamin C, to which we often encourages advertising, has no effect on the body.
Vitamin H (Biotin)
Deficiency of vitamin H (biotin) causes muscle pain, skin rash, leading to hair loss and exhaustion, and is often the cause of intestinal diseases.Biotin plays an important role in the digestion of carbohydrates and fats.Most of biotin contained in the liver and dried mushrooms (chanterelles and white), and cauliflower.A healthy person does not need recommendations for a minimum daily requirements of biotin, as the bacteria that inhabit the healthy gut themselves synthesize biotin.A sufficient amount deemed 30-60 mg per day.
Folic Acid (another name - vitamin M or vitamin B9) is probably not a vitamin, a vitamin-like substance that plays an important role in cell growth and division.Folic acid is found in yeast, liver, and especially - in green leafy plants.Deficiency of it changes the hemogram (blood count), leading to anemia (anemia), and disorders of cell metabolism.The most common cause of folate deficiency is alcoholism.The daily requirement is 150-200 mg.
Niacin Niacin is part of a complex of vitamin B2 and does not refer to the actual vitamins.Niacin is contained in wheat flour, in the kidneys and liver of animals, it is also found in meat and fish, legumes and fruits.In humans, the niacin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan.Niacin plays an important role in the metabolism and is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol.Deficiency of niacin - a phenomenon quite rare - manifested in the form of inflammation in the skin and mucosal tissues and disrupts the nervous system.Niacin stimulates cellular respiration and participates in the formation of the skin.The daily need for niacin is 13-16 mg.
also is not actually a vitamin, found in almost all foods;participates in the final breakdown of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, excretion of toxins from the body.The daily requirement is 6 mg.