Bronchitis in children : obstructive , acute , allergic .The first signs , symptoms and distinct ways to treat bronchitis in children.
Motherhood / / August 12, 2017
What is bronchitis
Reversed branchy tree with numerous branches and small branches - these can be seen on x-ray bronchi.If you follow the allegory, "tree" roots are the throat and nose, the barrel - the trachea, large and small branches, filling the lung tissue - the bronchi and alveoli serve as tiny leaves.Viruses and airborne bacteria, falling while breathing into the body, most often gets rid of the hazardous constituents in the nasopharynx, causingrhinitis, pharyngitis or tonsillitis.
Sometimes, especially if the body is weakened, microbes manage to get deeper and become the cause of bronchitis or pneumonia.In this case, the inner surface of the bronchi swells and narrows, and in response to an inflammation begins to form a huge amount of mucus.Getting rid of it, the bronchi contract, and spasms.In the presence of the three components - edema, a large number of mucus and bronchospasm - pediatrician diagnose bronchitis.
Bronchitis in children - types
Bronchitis can be primary, when the inflammatory process starts in the bronchi, and the secondary, accompanying the measles, whooping cough, flu and other diseases.For the duration of the course and the incidence of childhood bronchitis can be divided into three types:
1. Acute - illness lasts from 10 to 21 days.To this species also includes:
- obstructive - a syndrome of bronchial obstruction, usually affects children 2 to 3 years;
- bronchiolitis - an inflammation of the bronchioles, sick baby in the first year of life.Fearing possible development of acute respiratory failure, treated only in a hospital.
2. Recurrent - three or four times during the year, doctors diagnose bronchitis;
3. Chronic - if for two years at least once a year, the child suffered long (3-x months) bronchitis.
bronchitis in children and is classified for reasons of its occurrence:
- virus - causes of the disease are adenoviruses, parainfluenza or influenza;
- bacteria - pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, chlamydia, streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma;
- allergic - arises from the effects of external stimuli: pollen, wool, pets, tobacco smoke, household chemicals, dust and exhaust fumes.
signs (symptoms) of bronchitis in children
Bronchitis in children develops gradually, and the symptoms depend on the type of disease.The main difference between this disease from others that occur with coughing, - the presence of heat and abundant mucus.The most characteristic symptoms of bronchitis child:
- fever - by imperceptible degrees to 37.5 frightening parental figures 39⁰S thermometer;
- lack of appetite;
- severe weakness, drowsiness;
- labored and shallow breathing;
Depending on the cause of bronchitis, may join additional symptoms.
Acute bronchitis in children
One fifth of children bronchitis is an independent disease, caused by bacteria, and 80% - as a result of exposure to viruses or bacterial complications of character after their introduction.The beginning of the disease may serve as an inflammation of the upper respiratory tract with weakness and fever.Then connect a dry cough, gradually turning into the wet.This happens usually in the fifth or sixth day of the onset of the disease and is a comforting sign - so the body copes with the virus.
Copious sputum becomes a real challenge for kids - not able to spit it out, they swallow it than can cause vomiting.At the beginning of the disease the temperature can be 38-38,5 degrees, while in the mild form of the disease, it is quite capable to stay at the level of 37-37,2 degrees.Successfully flowing bronchitis cured for 10-20 days, but the timing depends on the correctness of the chosen set of measures and the state of the immune system of the baby.If treatment is not started in time, or mom trying to cope on their own with bronchitis, may be unpleasant and dangerous complications.
obstructive bronchitis in children
Common bronchitis - not very pleasant, like any disease, but occur relatively hard and not give in home care supple.It is quite another thing when the joins obstruction (narrowing) of the bronchi.Obstructive bronchitis - a very common disease in young children due to a fairly narrow bronchi in children younger than three years.Almost always, a disease associated with a viral infection.In addition to the physiological characteristics, prerequisites to the formation of the disease is the propensity to allergic reactions, very common predisposing factor is exposure to secondhand smoke.A clear manifestation of the disease plunge parents panic:
- exhausting paroxysmal cough, sometimes causing vomiting;
- loud and wheezing with whistling;
- abnormal movements of the body - with every breath chest swells, and the spaces between the ribs are drawn.
There are also some symptoms when they appear, you must immediately seek help from a doctor:
- the appearance of shortness of breath - increased respiratory rate is not less than 10% compared with the norm.For the youngest children, from one to three years, the number of breaths for bronchitis should not be more than forty per minute.Read better during sleep baby, because at the time of anxiety, shortness of breath playing or crying may be associated with emotions;
- obstruction combined with intoxication, manifested by nausea, fever, severe weakness and lack of appetite;
- blue nails and nasolabial triangle - these signs indicate insufficient intake of oxygen.
Hurry show crumb doctor if and when there is an obstruction in a child up to a year.In all these cases, is likely to require immediate hospitalization, mommy should be prepared for this.But even if the bronchitis takes the usual scenario, we should not ignore the doctor for regular checkups - he will hear and examine the crumbs, adjust the dosage of medication, give useful tips on care and treatment.
Important! frequent obstruction can be a cause of asthma, and pneumonia may be hiding under the guise of bronchitis!
Allergic bronchitis in a child
This disease occurs as by bacteria and viruses, especially staphylococcus, and becomes the result of an attack of allergens - pollen, dust, wool, cats or dogs.Sometimes in young children is difficult to distinguish allergic bronchitis asthma, bronchospasm because they are not clearly expressed.The main symptom is a persistent cough, often occurring on the background of physical stress and negative emotions.The cough is initially dry and painful, and later may become wet, and especially exasperates the baby at night.Most often, the temperature remains normal, the child bother only weakness and sweating.Relapses of the disease can be repeated twice a month.Duration of illness - from a few hours to three weeks.Characteristically, the baby suffering from, for example, allergies to favorite pussy, when leaving the house all the symptoms of the disease disappear without a trace.One-third of patients with allergic bronchitis is able to go into asthma.
Treatment of bronchitis in children
Most mothers confident that cope with bronchitis without antibiotics fail.In fact, as in any other viral disease, bronchitis antimicrobials are ineffective.They are effective only in some cases, which will be discussed later.What will help your child cope with illness?
1. Drinking plenty of fluids - liquefies phlegm easier to cough and not zasyhaya on the walls of the bronchi;
2. Febrifuge at temperatures above 38 degrees;
3. Humidity in the nursery should be not less than 70%, and the temperature does not exceed 20-21 degrees.The room should be aired regularly, wet cleaning, you can use air humidifiers;
4. Fresh air to the patient is a must.In the acute phase, you can make a baby on the balcony, even, if possible, to organize a nap on it.Later, when the temperature drops, it is useful to display the child on a leisurely walk.
5. Medicines, thinning mucus and contributing to its conclusion, should appoint a doctor.The fact that it can only accommodate all risk factors.For example, mucolytics, which make the phlegm less viscous and contribute to its discharge of, can cause in children up to two years with serious problems - they are simply not able to get rid of the huge amount of mucus, and it accumulates in the lungs.Whether inhalation needed - also decides the doctor, and choose the most appropriate medication.
main treatment of bronchitis is carried out in three directions:
- getting rid of dry painful cough;
- removal of edema of the bronchi and cleansing them from sputum;
- the fight against the virus.
Wheezing and breathlessness indicate the huge amount of accumulated fluid.In this case, the doctor, taking into account the child's age, appoints inhalation, physiotherapy, therapeutic massage.Mom can help the baby compresses warming, warming salt or buckwheat.Well it helps compress with warm vegetable oil - it is necessary to moisten marlechku, wring out and put on the right side of the breast and the baby's back.Top cover with cellophane, cotton fiber and secure with a bandage or clothing.Make a compress better at night and only in the absence of high temperature.
Attention! Mustard and banks are strictly prohibited for children under 5 years, and in the presence of high temperature!
Dr. necessarily choose the most effective set of measures, and the mother remains strictly follow its recommendations.
whether antibiotics used in the treatment of bronchitis in children
In some cases, the use of antibiotics is completely justified and even necessary.The doctor prescribed these drugs, if:
- high fever lasts for more than four days;
- there is purulent sputum;
- against the backdrop of a temporary improvement and carrying out treatment in a new baby thermal shock and pronounced signs of intoxication;
- a blood test indicates the presence of inflammation.
most often antibiotics are crumbs to six months suffering from bronchiolitis and children with symptoms of bacterial bronchitis.
Prevention of bronchitis in children
Any illness is always better to prevent than to long and hard to treat.There are some simple rules that will help avoid the unpleasant and sometimes dangerous disease:
- in the room where the child is not allowed to smoke;
- as far as possible try to monitor the humidity in the room and prevent the emergence of strong smells in it;
- toddler temper, not coddle him, to bring SARS disease to a minimum;
- oversee a normal nasal breathing, fight prolonged cold.If the doctor recommends adenoidectomy - should listen to the recommendations;
- complete rest kids and wellness trip to the sea help to strengthen the immune system and put a barrier to unwanted infections.
that said bronchitis in children Dr. Komarovsky
In 99% of cases of bronchitis - a viral infection, the treatment of which does not require the use of antibiotics.And only 1% - a bacterial bronchitis, in which the diagnosis can not go wrong.Common bronchitis treated conventionally - a warm drink, bed rest, taking fever-reducing drugs.The main requirement - the inadmissibility of self-needed medications must appoint a physician.The outcome of the disease and methods of prevention are as specific actions of parents, and a doctor should be timely treatment.