Cultivation of soya in the area near the house - is quite real !Selection of an appropriate soybean varieties , planting methods, and follow-up care
A House And A Garden / / April 15, 2016
Soya - bush-annual crops to 100 cm tall.
Grow it in the area near the house, with the right care is not difficult.
With the help of this plant can be improve the soil in the garden .
nodule bacteria on its roots, accumulate nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it into a mineral form that is suitable for plant nutrition.
This is a great predecessor, after which other crops grow well, drought-resistant soybean, developed root system provides the moisture the plant and pubescent leaves protect it from air drought.
Yet maximum crop can be obtained only by providing optimal moisture.Soya grows best on nutrient and drained well sunlit area.
soybeans.Selection of planting material, seeds
Choosing the right variety for your region - the most important of the conditions for the cultivation of a decent harvest.It is advisable to choose 2-3 varieties differing in vegetation duration, resistance to pests and diseases.
One of the varieties with the highest content of protein in our country, ripening, growing season lasts 105-115 days.This soybean cultivar yields more than other beans and green mass.Seeds of plants yellow, oval, weight 1 thousand. Pieces of about 160-190 The sowing is carried out with inter-row spacing of 45 cm, spending 60 seeds per 1 m2.
Bred by irradiation seed varieties Peremoga gamma rays.The main advantage of this variety - responsiveness to the use of intensive farming and increased resistance to drought.Plants tall, with purple flowers, growing season 107 days.
Grade valuable his precocity that allows it to grow in many parts of the country.It matures at 8-9 days earlier than the most common varieties, crop yields stable in any given year.The variety is resistant to viral, bacterial and fungal diseases of the majority.
Variety derived from repeated sampling of the population, and Manchurian L 89-10.In addition to high productivity, resistant at germination and early growth of cold during the generative period, it is highly resistant to drought.Vegetation period 119 days, without irrigation plant surpassed by many varieties of crops.In the steppe, you can start harvesting in August, making it possible to guarantee to sow winter wheat.Seeds are small, which makes it possible to reduce the number of seeds for sowing.
High-yielding variety, growing season lasts for 117 days.Large seeds, weight 1 thousand. pieces of 177.3 g, tall plants to 80 cm, resistant to shattering and lodging.Grade Mariana has a high ability to bind nitrogen from the air, oily seeds, oil content of up to 26.2%.
soybeans.Sowing and planting (.. Deadlines, feeding, shelter, temperature, soil, etc.)
soybeans produced in the well-watered areas with a small amount of weed - after growing corn on the greens or silage, spring and winter cereals, and after years ofor annual grasses.Culture, delivering from the ground a lot of moisture (Sudan grass, sorghum, maize, beet and sunflower), are not suitable for planting soybeans without irrigation.You do not need to sow it next to the legumes or leguminous plants, these plants have many of the same diseases and pests.
Sowing begin after the soil has warmed up to 9-10 degrees.In cold and too wet soil seeds do not germinate for a long time, this crop sown after maize and winter.Keep in mind that the rapid heating of the soil, it is fashionable to begin planting at a temperature of 6-8 degrees of soil.
paramount importance protection soybean seedlings from spring frosts, they will kill her instantly.The optimum sowing time can be defined as follows: from possible frost in your area need to take 7 days, the resulting data will be the most suitable sowing period.Until that time sow is very risky.It is important to not forget the soil temperature if suitable planting dates, but the ground has not yet warmed up, the seed can not begin.Grain long will lie in the soil at this time of increasing threat of contamination of seed pests and diseases.
Soy dicotyledonous crops during germination sprout cotyledons should make the surface soil, as a result of this culture reacts strongly to seeding depth.It is important not to bury them too, optimally immerse seeds 3-5 cm, maximum 6 cm. Backlog seeds deeper or you can not see the seedlings, or they will be very rare, affected by various diseases.During germination ground - save at a depth of 3-4 cm accumulation of moisture in the winter.The best way to save water is gentle loosening site.Very well if the soil is covered with mulch.
primarily sow late varieties, the latest sown early varieties.Most ripening plants are sown with aisles of 15-30 cm and 30-45 cm of mid, late-place with aisles of 40-60 cm.
Sowing produce etched and treated rizotorfina (preparation of root nodule bacteria) seeds.
method of calculating the number of seeds for sowing Hb = T * M / P;P = C * H / 100;where:
1. Nv - number of seeds for sowing, kg / ha;
2. D - density, one million pieces../ Ha;
3. B - clean, in%
4. C - germination in%;
5. P - the crop suitability, in%;
6. M - weight of 1 thousand seeds of soybean cultivation
land for planting soybeans, you must first prepare, autumn make fertilizer luschat soil on 8-10 cm depth.If earlier on the site grew corn, after fertilizing the soil, dig a bed of 25-30 cm deep if grain, then to a depth of 22-25 cm. After the snow melts and the drying of the soil plot harrowed across plowing.
main purpose of training soil - retain moisture and eliminate weed seedlings.If the site does not align in the autumn, and if there are a lot of weeds, cultivated land in the spring of 6-8 cm deep and rolled down the ground.This makes it possible to increase the temperature of the upper layer 2-3 degrees, so that weed seeds begin to germinate and, then easy to destroy.The bed for planting soybeans should be lump-free and very smooth - from soy beans grow low and irregular surface area makes it difficult to harvest.To create
1 kg ground seeds of soybean imposed bush 25 g of potassium, 40 g of phosphorus and 90 g of nitrogen. soil fertilizer complex fertilizer N30-45, P60-90, K45-60, together with the introduction of dung (2-2.5 kg per one hundred square meters) significantly increases the yield of plants.Not using nitrogen fertilization to get a good soybean crop is not possible.Effectively making ammophos directly to the rows during sowing culture (per 4-5 g per one hundred square meters).Plants are responsive to fertilizer boron and molybdenum (conveniently pre-treated seeds simultaneously with inoculation rizotorfina).
in the soil at the site should be as large as possible nodule bacteria.This can be achieved by the method of inoculation.The site, which grew soybeans in the last season, already has the required amount of bacteria.
great importance is the pH of the soil, the optimal level of acidity 6,28 pH.If the acidity is less than 5.6, soybean sowing on this site is not without liming.To find out the actual level of pH, should be analyzed, preferably with proven laboratory.
plot treated soil herbicides, before sowing , using their seal harrows.If the site grow rhizomatous weeds, the seed treatment before sowing to spend it is not necessary, it is better to wait until the green wheat grass grow a mass of up to 10-15 cm, and then process the seedbed and sow soybeans.
In most regions of the soybean crop produced in late April .The density of sowing soybean seeds 35-40 pieces per m2, with row spacing of 40-60 cm width, if the distance between the rows of more then plated on 10-20% more soybean seeds.
When the first seedlings should be regularly loosen the aisle and destroy weeds.After the formation of 5-6 leaves of plants emit flowers at this time of need in the area with soybeans to close up the soil nitrophosphate and abundantly watered flower bed.The harvest should be removed after the bushes begin to crumble the leaves and beans appear gray.Before dig a bed pull out the stems and leaves palye buried in the ground for pereprevaniya.Beans to the threshing dried in the sun, they are at this time opened and partially husks, after which they finally threshed, winnowed and lay in storage.
Farmers have seen on their own experience, to plant and grow soy - easy.It is more difficult to collect the beans grown, it is necessary to remove them quickly (some varieties are beginning to crack and crumble after 3-5 days).
soybeans.Main pests and how to deal with them
There are several large groups of soybean pests subdivided by injury and by periods of development of soybean:
1. Pests shoots and sprouts;
2. Pests parts of culture;
3. Pests young (emerging) seeds;
4. Pests of seeds in storage.
For many insects division by parameters such probation.
sprout fly .The larva is 4-5 mm long, off-white or yellowish, expanding on the back side.In soil, it bites into the seeds that ceases to cause a large loss of seedlings (loss of 20%).After a short time the larva eats the cotyledons, stem and point of growth, creating under the skin moves.It is recommended to sow the seeds shallowly in moist soil, and add pre-plant fertilizer hexachloran.
Bean leaf beetle .Small beetle, 5-6 mm long, the larvae are yellow with dark spots, can grow up to 10 mm.This is very dangerous pest for soybean sprouts, the larvae gnaw the cotyledons, and are eating the deep grooves on the stems.Bean leaf beetle much harm to crops soybean plots located near the forest.
Soy flea .Small bugs about 3 mm, yellow visible on their wings 2 dark stroke.Fleas gnaws cotyledons of young shoots, eats stalk growth point and the first leaves.Damage can be seen very well - small round holes in the leaves and damage to the stems.During the summer the pest gnaws a hole in beans and eats seeds.
weevils .Beetles brown, 3.5-4.5 mm long, with a thick and short head.Almost everyone eats bean cotyledons and first leaves, pest activity is significantly enhanced in warm weather.Severely damaged plants, significantly stunted.White larvae without legs are eating nodules on the roots, reducing the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.Beetles wait out the winter in the topsoil and under plant remains.The fight is to destroy the beetles, except agricultural practices, for this purpose, insecticides, and placing soybeans away crops perennials legumes, since these places pest can ride out the winter.
wireworm .The larvae of click beetles, their body is yellow up to 25 mm.Pest makes in swollen stems and seeds moves.Characteristically podgryzanie stem near the root.Damaged seeds do not germinate and rot, damaged seedlings die.The Wide-sowing plants is much less damaged by pests.For the destruction of wireworms in the soil make phosphate fertilizer with 25% hexachlorane.It is advisable to handle the seed hexachlorane 12%, a positive effect on plowing plowed fields.
black cutworm .Big caterpillar, gray, 50 mm long, pest gnaws the young shoots, leaves only gnaw later.In the daytime, the pest is in the soil under the plant.Pest damage, except soybean cabbage, sunflower, tobacco, beets.
Red Heads shpanka .Black beetles with elytra and soft red head, they devour the cotyledons, stems gnaw, destroy the seedlings.The beetles also eat the leaves completely, devour flowers and small twigs.