beet cultivation : sowing , planting seedlings , care .What you need to know for successful cultivation of beet - the secrets of experienced gardeners
A House And A Garden / / April 15, 2016
beets - one of the main vegetables on our table after potatoes and carrots.
In addition, it is still used in the treatment of certain diseases and the relatively undemanding.
Therefore, almost every gardener grow beets on the site.
to gather a rich harvest of root crops, it is important to comply with agricultural techniques beet.
Selection of varieties and seeds
Depending on the destination derived feed, eating, leaf, sugar beet varieties.
fodder beet is grown for cattle feed.Root crops are large yellow, pink, white.
Sugar varieties are used for the production of sugar.Carrots have an elongated shape in white.
Mangold (leaf beet) cultivated for its succulent fleshy leaves and petioles.However, in Russia it has not received wide popularity.
on garden plots are mainly grown beets dining room.For any climate region can easily select suitable varieties of this vegetable.
In terms of beet maturation happens:
• Early ripe (mature for 50-80 days;
• The mid (vegetation from 80 to 100days);
• Late (growing more than 100 days)
environment.early varieties are the most popular:
Gribovskaya flat - root flat or flat-rounded with pulp pinkish-red color is resistant to bolting has good keeping quality (94%) Harvest dostigaet3-6,2 kg / m2....
Detroit - cold-resistant variety with spherical shape of root crops is well preserved, suitable for preservation, is resistant to bolting, vysokourozhaen
Crimson ball has a high yield of form...root is round, sweet flesh is bright red.
Bordeaux 237 resistant to drought.Yields may reach 4.5-8 kg / m2.Shape rounded root crops flattened or rounded, thick juicy pulp has a dark red color.Vysokoadaptiven to grow in northern regions.Well kept.
Don flat 367 is characterized by high keeping quality.Root crop rounded, slightly flattened shape.Pulp striped light pink ring on a red background.
Incomparable A-463 has a high resistance to infectious diseases.Dark red with dark rings pulp of this variety has a delicate texture.
cold resistance 19 - used for winter overseeding.The variety is resistant to major diseases.It has good keeping quality during winter storage.
Egyptian flat yield reaches 3.5-6.5 kg / m2.Sort srednezasuhoustoychivy, root crops form a flat or flat-rounded, flesh pinkish-red with lighter rings, juicy, tender.When storing keeping capacity 80-90%.
Cylinder - Dutch cultivar suitable for conservation, quickly brewed.Peel the root vegetables in a thin, flesh dark red, juicy.Root cylindrical shape.The variety has high keeping quality.
best varieties of beet late:
Odnorostkovaya - characterized by high yields.Seeds of its singleton, so the thinning of crops required.Maroon roots have a firm texture.The yield reaches 7-8 kg / m2.Most varieties resistant to bolting.
Mona - cylindrical roots have a smooth skin, the flesh is dark red with mild rings.
beet cultivation: sowing and planting
Land for growing beet choose well-lit, given the crop rotation.In the shadow of this vegetable will grow poorly.In addition, if the garden is high ground water level, you need to take care of drainage.
Optimal for growing beet light and medium loam and sandy loam.If sandy soil prevails in the area, it is compacted turf soil, humus or compost (1 bucket / m2).Heavy soil organic matter enriched in addition to sand, peat to improve aeration.In spring nizkoplodorodnyh lands make ammonium nitrate (30-40 g / m2), and the fall of triple superphosphate (40-50 g / m2), potassium salt (60-70g / m2).On soils prone to waterlogging, beets can be grown only at high beds with additional drainage device.Beet grows well in soils with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction (pH 6.5-7.2).Highly acidic soil with lime (lime 500-600g / m2) over two stages - in the fall and spring.
Preparation of seeds for planting
purchasing seeds, we should remember that they can not be stored at low temperatures.Otherwise, the plants derived from them quickly begin to bloom at the expense of the formation of roots.
beet seeds (collected on their own or purchased) must be calibrated prior to planting size, treated to destroy pathogens.To this end, their 30 minutes soaked in ash solution (1 tablespoon per liter of hot water) or potassium permanganate and left in pure water for swelling na1-2 days.
To improve germination 10-14 days before sowing spend their vernalization:
seeds 3-4 cm layer in a deep plate pour water temperature of + 15-20oS for 2-4 days at a ratio of 1: 1 andcover with a damp cloth;
after swelling of seeds they bring to 7-10 days in a cool place or put in the fridge
beet harvest of vernalized seeds can be collected at 1.5-2 weeks before the crop period.
beet seed germination depends on the air temperature.At 5 ° C shoots tightened up to 3 weeks at 10 ° C - there are 10 hours at 15 ° C for 5-6 days at + 20-25 ° C - in 3-4 days.In the central regions of Russia are usually sow beets after bird cherry bud - 10-15 May.Of mid and late varieties for storage are sown in late May.If planting for some reason delayed (cold, immature soil, rain, etc.), It is possible to sow later, but the seeds must be prepared by the above method.
Seeds planted in beds belt or small way.
When terraced planting make long longitudinal rows at a distance of not less than 0.5 m from each other.
Inline method implies a seeding in furrows across the beds.Between these rows comply 25-30 cm. Sowing do in pre-watered grooves to a depth of 2-3 cm on heavy soil, 3-4 cm in the lung.
Growing beet seedlings
In the northern regions is the most reliable method of growing seedlings of beet.This allows you to:
• reduce the time of beet growing in the open field;
• to harvest 3-4 weeks earlier than in the seed planting;
• eliminates the need for thinning landings;
• reduces bolting beet;
• saving seed.
Pre-soaked seeds sown or vernalized, since the last of March until the second week of April on a bed or in a warmed greenhouse.Early-maturing varieties are used.Seedlings planted in open ground as usual, starting from 15 May.If there is a threat of night frosts, the landing is better to cover with plastic wrap.
better to plant beets after predecessors such as pumpkin (cucumber, zucchini, pumpkin), potatoes, onions and beans.
beet cultivation: care, fertilizing
Caring for beets is simple: regular watering, hoeing between the rows along periodic with weeding, thinning, fertilizing.
Beet moisture-loving culture.Increased need for watering her there in the period of active growth and root crops during loading.In hot sunny weather young beets watered three times a week in the morning or in the evening.Adult plant only one abundant watering a week, and after only moisten the earth.2 weeks before harvest watering finish, otherwise keeping quality root crops in storage is low.
After 2-3 days after planting begin to loosen the aisle to soil crust not interfere beet germination.Also loosening is necessary after each watering or heavy rains.
beet seeds prolific.Therefore, from every seed grows a few seedlings.And no matter how careful you are not metered seeds at planting, there is a need for thinning.
first time it is done in the presence of beet in two true leaves.At the same time pull out the weaker seedlings and transplanted to an empty space.Re-keying is carried out when the beet has 4-5 leaves.Until mid-August should be held the third thinning in which the selected items are suitable for food as well as clean the sick and ugly.The distance among the left 8.6 cm to not izrastalis roots.The procedure is carried out after watering or rain, so the plants are pulled out easily.
After the first thinning on the beds make 20-30 g of fertilizer per 10 liters of water.Before doing by closing ranks second fertilizer ammonium nitrate and potassium salt (20-25 g and 40-50 g per bucket of water).In addition to the main fertilizer is also necessary to make trace elements, especially boron, and manganese, with a lack of root crops which core "softened".After any necessary fertilizing crops abundantly watered.
Beetroot tends to accumulate nitrates, so make fresh manure under it can not be.
beet Growing: harvesting and storage
Beet dependent on sowing time, weather, variety, growing region.Beets is desirable to clean before the first frost to prevent the freezing of her, cracking and rotting.
signs by which one can determine that the root crops for harvesting are:
• ripe beets reached its high-quality size;
• on roots were shallow lateral roots;
• lower leaves wilt and turn yellow.
middle-beets harvested in late August, late-ripening - in the first decade of September.
Digging beets should be in dry weather, taking care not to damage the skin of root crops.Stuck to the ground it is necessary to clean off or wash away with them.Tops trimmed to 1-2 cm from the head of root crop.Well-dried vegetables stored in bulk on the floor or in boxes of sand in basements or cellars.
Main pests and diseases.Ways to combat them
• Black leg (blackleg) caused by various parasitic soil fungi.The disease is most dangerous to young seedlings.Spine and stem rot, they formed hauling black.Shoots wither and die.Development of the Black Leg promotes excessive moisture at low soil aeration.Spreading the disease from infected seed.Therefore, for preventing them before sowing calibrated, disinfected with fungicides.It is also necessary to destroy weeds, to comply with crop rotation.
• Brown rot is caused by a fungus.On the mycelium grows roots brown.The most common lesion of root crops takes place in areas where groundwater is near the surface are.To combat the disease need to sort the vegetables during the laying of the deposit, loosen the aisle, fed boron fertilizers, lime acidic soil, to comply with crop rotation.
• Peronosporosis (downy mildew) affects mainly the young plants in the phase of closing.At the edges of the leaves curl downward.They grow on the underside of the gray-violet mycelium.Distributed mushroom air flow, water drops, overwinters in plant debris.Therefore, they should be collected and burned after harvest.Disinfect seeds before planting, the plants were sprayed with the preparations containing copper (such as Bordeaux mixture).
• cercosporosis - a fungal disease that affects the ground of the beet leaves appear on a lot of bright spots with reddish-brown edges.At high humidity in these spots grows mycelium grayish patina.The leaves wither at strong defeat.At the first sign of infection the plants were sprayed with the preparations of copper.After collecting the crop residues are burned crops, the soil dug up.
• Gangrene Gangrène appears on the leaves light brown spots with black sporangia at the center.On roots begins dry rot.should observe the alternation of crops for disease prevention.
• beet flea - small jumping beetles black.For they eat the flesh of the cotyledons, the leaves are characteristic translucent "windows".In dry weather damaged the seedlings die.Adult insects hibernate in the soil surface in plant residues.To control flea beetles needed weeding, which are intermediate bases for feeding pests.When a large number of pests can be used malathion.Effectively dusting crops 2-3 times with tobacco dust and lime fluff (or ash) (1: 1) with an interval of 4-5 days.
• H.schachtii : harm caused to the larvae of this pest, parasitizing in beet roots.The leaves wither, becoming yellowish-green color.In the affected area is not the beets are planted for 4-5 years.
• Beet bug and its larvae suck sap from plants.Damaged leaves become pale, shrink, and then turn brown and die.The females lay overwintering eggs on beet seed plants and weeds near the beets.In this connection it is necessary to destroy the weeds, raking in the fall and burn crop residues.Larvae and adults consume spraying insecticides.