Growing figs : the rules of care for demanding southerner .How to grow a fig tree in the garden and at home?
A House And A Garden / / April 15, 2016
Figs become a real boon for all lovers of exotic plants.
This culture can be grown in the garden and in the home.
fig tree grows well in a warm climate, but gardeners plant it and in the middle lane, providing planting additional protection for the winter.
Subject to all the conditions of farming, figs begin to bear fruit in the first year after planting.
Pay a bit of attention to your new "pet", and he is sure to please you abundant harvest tasty useful fruit.
Features varieties of fig
Figs (fig tree, fig tree) - spreading deciduous tree belonging to the family of Mulberry.Grows Culture in Georgia, Azerbaijan, the Krasnodar Territory, in the Crimea and in the Mediterranean countries.
is derived not so many varieties that endure the cold of the middle band.And if some hybrids fig trees grow very well in a greenhouse, the other always need fresh air.Therefore, before buying a certain type of planting material verify its performance and "habits".
figs growing in the homeland-pollinated by wasps blastofagami who do not live in the northern latitudes.This function can also perform other small insects, but better to be safe and to plant in their area such cultivars for fruit ovaries that do not require pollination.Let
popular varieties of figs, which, as practice shows, take root in the mid-latitudes and in the north:
• Dalmatian .This kind endures cold up to -15 ° C.Fruits - asymmetric, pear-shaped, brownish or greenish tint, has an excellent flavor characteristics.
• Kadota .Fruit - small, pear-shaped, yellow-brown in color, often used for winter preparations.
• Brown Turkey .The trees of this variety today is considered one of the most winter-hardy - can withstand temperatures down to -20 ° C.The fruit - pear-shaped, ribbed touch, small in size, brownish hue.
• Crimean Black .Fruit - ribbed, oval-shaped, dark purple (almost black) color.
• Panache .It is an ancient plant variety bred by French breeders.The fruit - in the yellow-green stripes, rich with juicy red pulp.The tree is unusual in that the fig has a strawberry flavor.
Outdoor station or home environment where to grow figs?
Russian gardeners have already proved in practice that it is possible to grow figs and a temperate climate.But get ready for the fact that the winter will have to either carry a sapling in a greenhouse or home, or prepare a shelter for him.If the site plant will miss the light, do not expect abundant harvests.
figs on the site
Living in the north, where the short duration of the day, it is better to grow figs at home.Many gardeners lodge guests from the south in covered greenhouses and hothouses.Figs are planted in wooden trays that promotes profuse fruiting due to the limited space for root development.In such conditions a tree can bear fruit 2 times a year, since he lacks warmth and light.This technique, incidentally, is used for the cultivation of the fig tree in the open field.
Fig tree in
home to find the best way of growing figs in view of the climatic characteristics of the region.
Prepare soil for planting figs
Since figs light- and heat-loving, highlight it well lit place in the garden - it is desirable that the south side of the plant is not covered high buildings or other planting.But with the other sides of the figs must be protected from strong winds.
fig tree likes fertile, well-drained soil.To create optimal conditions for plant growth and development, in advance, prepare a nutritious substrate - ground sheet, compost and manure.This pochvosmesi later you will fill the planting hole or trench.But for planting figs at home, you can use the purchased ground intended for the cultivation of lemons or roses.
Agro-technical measures in the area before planting the plants will depend on the chosen method of cultivation:
• Trenches .Choose this method if you plan to grow several specimens figs.Dig a trench depth of 30 cm and a width of 50-70 cm. At the bottom of the furrow make holes up to 50 cm in depth and diameter of 30-40 cm. In these holes to refill the nutrient substrate.
• Wells .Dig in a selected area of the pit planting depth of 1 m and a diameter of 80-100 cm Their walls are lined with brick or ceramic tiles -. This "protection" from the proliferation of roots.At the bottom of the well for better drainage lay a layer of 20-30 cm of broken bricks or gravel.Top pour the cooked early augmentation of yield.
When growing figs in the home technology training seat is similar - only in this case, the drainage and the ground is laid in a wooden tub of suitable size.
Planting fig seedlings and seeds
Growing figs of seedlings - the best option for beginners.Buy better planting material in specialized nurseries - so you can assess the quality of seedlings and to make sure that you get the right sort of plant.On the trunk and branches should be no traces of damage by pests and diseases.Suitable two-year seedling with two side branches.
Planting fig start when completely bypasses the threat of frost.In the south, tree planting can begin in April, but in temperate climates is better to wait until May.The technology of this:
• The pre-prepared pit with nutritious soil, place the seedling, carefully spreading roots.
• sprinkle the roots of the earth and tamp it.
• Liberally drizzle and Zamulchiruyte landing place.
• Seedling better tie up to a peg driven into next.
is not possible to buy a sapling of the fig tree?Try to grow it from seed.This method is bad because the plants will begin to bear fruit only after 2-4 years - sapling needs time to get stronger and gain strength. Follow:
• Seeds sown seedlings in the first trays filled with nutrient substrate - to a depth of 3 cm and at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other.Earth pour and container cover with glass or polythene to create a warm, moist conditions.
• While the seedlings did not germinate, regularly moisten the earth.Seedlings should appear within 2-4 weeks.
• When the seedlings produced on stalks 4-6 full leaves of the seedlings can be transplanted into individual containers with a diameter of 8-12 cm.
• Transfer figs to a permanent place next summer.Or leave it to grow at home.
For good care of figs thank you abundant crop of large fruit.The rules are:
• Watering .Strict regulations not, but watch to not dry tree trunks and covered with crust of the earth.Between the fruiting number of irrigation is minimized.The same applies to the period of overwintering plants - in the open field or in the home.
• Feeding .Figs fertilized in the fall of phosphorous-potash dressings.special facilities for fruit trees can be used before vegetation.In the remaining periods of figs enough mulch layer consisting of compost or rotted manure.
• transplant .To give a fig tree yield good performance in the first 3 years of growth, repot the plant every season before the start of the growing season.When the figs grow stronger, he is frequent transplants will no longer need - change the station every 3-4 years.When growing trees at home, make sure that the capacity does not become small your "pet".
• Pruning .In spring, summer and autumn figs branches need pruning - so the plant will produce more fruit and well-groomed look.Already in April, begin to remove damaged trees during the winter shoots and those branches that are growing in the perpendicular direction.Select 2 healthy growth buds.The remaining shoots prischipnite that the plant does not expend energy on their development.In May, the formed thin out the branches so that the distance between them was no more than 15 cm. In the fall, when the tree defoliation, remove the damaged shoots.
• Formation .Figs formed as a compact tree or bush with 3-5 branches.To the section adorned tree at planting did not bury the root neck.And if you want to grow on a plot of figs as a bush, neck bury at 5 cm. In the early years do not forget about support.You can use trellises or wooden pegs.
In the winter, if you do not believe that the southern guest survive harsh HORODIA, take care of the shelter tree.And there will not be enough simply bend bush to the ground and hide non-woven fabric.
technology is more complex:
• From polycarbonate or foam box make up to 1 m, width and height of 0.5 m
• Pre-trimmed tree cover duct..To design is not blown away, it can be prikopat in the ground or flatten the top stones.Consider it a small ventilation holes to figs are not overheated.
• In winter, the shelter is further covered with snow.
Winter shelter figs
In April, when the threat of frost has passed, the shelter can be removed and prepare the tree for the new season.
gardeners most often propagated by cuttings figs - winter (without leaves) or summer.
Winter cuttings cut from shoots, which 1-2 years.Planted them in the spring - has not yet had time to blossom buds.Use a sandy loam soil.
reproduction softwood cuttings - an increasingly popular method.Material cut with fruit trees, and planted in the early summer.To stalk rooted, plant it in the sand, and the first time, keep in a moist environment, cover the jar.Before you move the small sapling to a permanent place, it can be hold in the water tank.
figs Protect from pests and diseases
Successful cultivation of figs in the open area often prevent diseases and pests.Regularly check the fit of the presence of lesions in time to take action.
fig tree can damage these pests:
• Inzhirovaya ognёvka .The caterpillars feed on the leaves and fruit pulp.The result - a green mass is not so thick, and the harvest is greatly reduced.Pitted fruit is better not to eat food.
Damage inzhirovoy moth
• Inzhirovaya psylla .Larvae and adults feed on leaves, shoots and fruits.Heavily damaged by pests branches are stunted and the leaves fall off.Psylla dangerous by the fact that they can move on figs viral diseases.
• Inzhirovaya aphid .Entire colonies of insects settle on the underside of leaves.With the transition to fruit and shoots pest over time.
Among figs diseases prevalent anthracnose and gray mold .Both these lesions are dangerous for the tree, if time does not take action.
and spread of insect pests, and the emergence of diseases can be prevented. will not hurt to take preventive measures:
• Regularly cut the affected branches.To prevent the spread of disease, broken twigs and fallen leaves to burn better.
• In late March, the treated plants are emulsions of mineral oils.Special preparations are effective against diseases and pests, which wintered in crop or soil.
• When will the tree leaves, in the struggle with the "misfortunes" help organophosphorus agents.To prevent You can use copper fungicides.
• If the summer was wet, in the mid-late summer planting can be treated with fungicides - this will prevent the formation of botrytis.
timely response to emerging challenges, gardener fully able to prevent the spread of disease, strongly affecting the figs.