You have decided to engage in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms ?We talk about the features of growing oyster mushrooms at home
A House And A Garden / / April 15, 2016
Whereas a sufficiently high demand for oyster cultivation and relatively simple technology, it can become a breeding source of additional income.
beginners mushroom need to become familiar with the cultivation of oyster mushrooms at home: a variety of varieties of this fungus, criteria for selection of planting material, planting dates, parameters of temperature and humidity, the specifics of care and feeding, as well as the dangers of mushrooms in the process of maturation.
Growing oyster mushrooms at home.Selection of planting material, varieties
Experts recommend starting the cultivation of mushrooms at home is with oyster due to the fact that this mushroom like no other for amateur breeding.
In nature oyster can be found in the woods on the rotten tree trunks or stumps, the fungus grows well in moist and cool environment.
artificial cultivation of oyster assumes the existence of certain conditions for the cultivation and strict observance of technology to produce the highest possible yield.
First of all, prepared room in which will be grown oyster: it must be provided for ventilation systems and air heating, as well as the ability to maintain a certain humidity inside and have coverage.
In addition, mushroom would prepare substrate, the raw material for which could be agricultural residues, wood chips or other materials.
planting material for the cultivation of oyster mushroom mycelium is (or mycelium) , which is a vegetative body of the fungus consisting of hyphae - thin branched filaments.
There are many varieties of oyster, as well as hybrid forms, differing in the degree of sensitivity to different levels of humidity, temperature amplitude values, the concentrations of carbon dioxide, the ability to give a good harvest at certain times of the year.
Oyster mushroom - the most famous varieties in the wild often grows on stumps and fallen trunks of deciduous trees, fruiting the second half of the summer and early fall.The flesh of the fungus white and with a pleasant smell, the seed is a substance of white or pink color.
Oyster pink (or Flamingo) refers to the fast-growing varieties - the fruit appear after 10 days after sowing the mycelium, somewhat more thermophilic compared with other varieties (the fruits are formed at a temperature between 16 and 30 degrees C).
Oyster oyster - one of the most valuable varieties, has a dark gray hat and pulp bluish, purple or brown.At home, it can give a good harvest throughout the year.
Oyster orange got its name for the bright coloring, in nature grows on stumps and dead wood in deciduous forests or gardens, suitable for human consumption only while young - adult fungus becomes hard and gets an unpleasant smell.
In addition to the best-known varieties are oyster rozhkovidnaya , having the shape of a shepherd's horn, citric - with a bright yellow hat, steppe, which grows on the ground and, unlike other fungi belonging to the family Umbelliferae.Subject to strict compliance with technological requirements, all these sorts of wonderful fruit in artificial conditions.
addition to natural varieties exist artificially bred strains of oyster , obtained by breeding and crossbreeding of hybrid varieties in different combinations.Due to the high yield, the largest demand among these strains are mushroom as NC-35, P-20, P-77, 420, 107, K-12, K-17, and others.Each of the strains has its own characteristics that must be taken into account in the selection of planting materials for specific conditions.For the cultivation of oyster mushrooms in the summer, if you can not strictly adhere to the required temperature, you should try to choose the variety or strain capable of bearing fruit in such an environment without losing productivity.Taking into account the wide range of planting material, are now offering the market, you can pick up a mycelia for conditions that have a significant range of deviations from accepted standards.There are several types of mycelium, among which the most famous grain and compost.Grain type mycelium has proved better than others, due to the high yield and undemanding to storage conditions.
Growing oyster mushrooms at home.Sowing
One of the most significant moments in the technological cycle of growing oyster is considered preparation of the substrate, from which the so-called substrate blocks will be formed later.The most affordable in the region, the material can be selected as the substrate for the preparation of raw materials: sawdust, husks, or agricultural residues, cereal straw.The most versatile raw material for the manufacture of the substrate is wheat straw , crushed to fractions of 5-10 cm.
primarily conducted thermal processing of raw materials for mass decontamination from competitive and pathogenic microflora.For this straw is placed in a container of water heated to a temperature of 60-65 degrees C and kept under these conditions for about 3 hours.should not boil water, you should try to adhere to the required temperature during the soaking time.At this temperature, undesirable microorganisms are killed, survive only so-called thermophiles, not interfering grow oyster mushrooms.
The next step is drying substrate to a moisture content of 70% and cooling to a temperature of 20-25 ° C for about 8 hours.Determine the weight of the required humidity in the home can be a simple clenching it in your hand - in this case must stand drops of moisture (not streams).And only after that you can start substrate compaction and planting mycelium.
At the bottom of preformed plastic bags laid out a small amount of substrate, and then poured a layer of mycelium.Mycelium for several hours before planting should be removed from the refrigerator, brought to room temperature and thoroughly blurred.Layers in the bag should have about 12.The number block in the substrate mycelium is 5.3% of the straw, if it is smaller - growing time increases, with excess substrate may overheat, leading to destruction of the fungus.Seals the bag should be within reasonable limits - to get about 0.4kg / liter, as a result of the bag with a diameter of 25 cm and a height of 70 cm would weigh 12-14 kg.Do not use bags with a diameter greater than 40 cm One of the main requirements during Bookmarks substrate blocks (sometimes called mushroom the beds) is cleanliness -. Hands, clothing, tools and accessories.Perforation of bags by means of holes or cuts the done 7-8 cm, which must be on each unit 10-20.
The following incubation period , when 10-14 days the mycelium grows in the substrate.This happens due in the room with the air temperature of 20-24 degrees C, the temperature of the substrate at the same time will be 22-28 degrees C. It is unacceptable temperature rise above 28 degrees C, becausethis may lead to increased mold.Humidity should be 90-95%, natural ventilation, additional lighting is required.On the 2nd or 3rd day on the substrate will be white spots caused by the fungus gifom, by the end of the incubation period, the entire unit will be white.Then, within 4-5 days it occurs during the transition to fruiting.
Thereafter, the blocks are transferred to the room in which will be fruiting.Fruiting bodies of the first wave mature within 7-10 days.Optimum conditions in this case are: air temperature 13-15 degrees C, internal temperature 15-17 ° C (some new strains upper temperature limit may be up to 25 degrees C), 85-90% humidity, light exposure - at least 100lux / m2.air recirculation should be organized for the removal from the premises excess carbon dioxide, metabolic products and excess moisture.Lighting can be arranged with the help of fluorescent daylight.The desired temperature is maintained by adjusting the heating and ventilation.
Over the next 7-10 days occurs maturation of fruit bodies second wave, demanding the same conditions of lighting, temperature and humidity, but ventilation must be more intensive.The most active fruiting occurs during the first two weeks - for this period accounts for about 70% of the crop.First, there are the so-called primordia - seeds of future mushrooms, and a few days later he matures mushroom.At this stage, in addition to maintain the necessary humidity is sometimes applied irrigation, becauseduring maturation fungi first and second waves may not have enough moisture, and this may lead to loss of quality.To obtain the necessary level of humidity, you can use conventional horticultural sprayers and household humidifiers.The moisture is controlled by a hygrometer.The overabundance of moisture can lead to mold spots of dark green color.
Growing oyster mushrooms at home.Care, feeding raw
on which the substrate is produced, often contains insufficient amounts of the chemicals (such as sodium, phosphorus, potassium and other) required for intense fungal growth.Significantly affect the productivity of oyster mushrooms can be used as a top dressing of various nutritional supplements, among which distinguish natural - wheat bran, soybean meal, alfalfa hay, cocoa shells, brewer's grain, flour, alfalfa seed, malt sprouts, flour fountain, hay clover, grass meal ormineral, representing different calcium compounds: CaCO3 - chalk or calcium carbonate, slaked quicklime CaO or Ca (OH) 2 lime, CaSO4 -gips or plaster, dolomite flour - plus CaCO3 MgCO3.Some strains of oyster mushrooms today without the addition of dressing did not bear fruit.
Nutritional supplements are made at the stage of heat treatment of the substrate.The use of supplements can have side effects, so they should be used in compliance with certain rules.First, when making feeding is necessary to strictly observe hygiene and sanitation measures: use additives should be processed before making a disinfectant, such as 2% formaldehyde solution.The heat treatment time may be somewhat increased for the full assimilation of the substrate insertion compounds.Failure to comply with the norms of application of additives may lead to a significant increase in the temperature inside the unit substrate, which is why the fungus can be killed.In addition, excess amount of additive is necessary to activate the so-called competitive microorganisms, i.e.mildew, nematodes and others. Distribute the fertilizer in the substrate should be evenly.At first fruiting copious carbon dioxide caused by the use of nutritional supplements, may reduce the quality of the harvest, therefore, special attention should be paid to ventilation in the room during this time.Thus, to obtain a positive effect on the use of additives without losing quality should strictly adhere to the instructions for use when making feeding.
podpitok Application rate depends on the concentration of these nutrients.Since flour feather rate is 3% of the substrate weight, soy flour - 5%, bran and grass meal are introduced in an amount of 5-15%, hay, alfalfa or clover - 10-20%.Connections of calcium allow the substrate to maintain the pH at 7.0-7.5, improve the structure of the substrate, remove excess water.Practice shows that the use of natural and mineral nutritional supplements provided the precision of dosing and sanitary requirements can raise the productivity of oyster mushrooms by 30-40%.
oyster Main pests and how to deal with them
In the process of growing oyster mushroom in many problem pests and fungal diseases, including insects, microorganisms, bacteria and disease non-parasitic properties.Most often there are such pests as:
- fungus gnats (sciaridae), damaging the mycelium and the body of the larvae of fungus.larvae are carriers of adult insects.The causes of this harmful insect are poor standards of hygiene or mistakes in cultivation technology;
- -Gorbatka flies and midges appear in the premises for the same reasons and affect the body and the mycelium of the fungus as well as fungus gnats;
- saprtrofnye mites and predatory damage the mycelium young adults and larvae destroy the hyphae.In addition, are carriers of spores of pathogens;may occur due to too wet raw material whether non-compliance with hygiene requirements;
- woodlice, sublevels (hypogastrura, podura) harm the mycelium and fruit bodies appear too wet areas or through ill-treated substrate.
most common disease of oyster mushroom is education various kinds of mold, such as green mold, orange mold, mildew hairy, brown mold and beetle (coprinus), Mucorales and the so-called imperfect fungi.Most of them have hit the fruiting body and mycelium oyster, and can cause allergic reactions in humans.The causes of diseases are violations of technology, failure to comply with dosage feeding, failure to comply with sanitary measures.
In addition, the negative impact on the growth of oyster mushrooms have bacteria (pseudomonas) and disease neparazitnogo type, as a result of which slows or stops fruiting, the fruit produced distorted and poor quality.Avoid such trouble to help a precise and strict observance of technology and hygiene requirements.