melon cultivation - easier than you think !How to grow a melon : sowing , care , feeding , protection from pests and diseases
A House And A Garden / / April 15, 2016
Melons are different, but all are well developed and provide a normal harvest only when creating optimal conditions.
Melon, in contrast to the other plants in the garden, a negative attitude to the excess moisture.She loves dry and hot weather, is not afraid of the direct rays of the sun.For this reason, in the southern regions it is easier to grow in the open field.
course, residents of the northern regions and the middle band is insulting that they difficult to put on a summer residence melon without shelter.But this misconception is, in the open air can be grown melon, not only in the southern regions of Russia.
Normal melon harvest can be obtained, and in the middle lane , and even grow it in Siberia.This culture has many different varieties, which differ in the requirements of the climate, taste and shape.
Growing melons.Selection of varieties and seeds
mistakes when choosing and planting the seeds can leave you without a crop, use of crop material can only be proven organizations.
Purchase seeds given:
• A place where the seeds were collected.Buy only from producers of the region, they will be adapted to the characteristics of your environment;
• The duration of the growing season.Small time guarantees a crop in any region;
• The size of the fruit.Do not just believe the statements about the huge number of large melons.Gourds grow well only in the southern regions.Even in the greenhouse can be obtained only small melon, although they grow much;
• Term of seed germination.Purchase seeds "with reserve" pumpkin and melons spent about three years give more ovaries.
Many gardeners, fall into a stupor, if necessary, selecting appropriate seed.Firstly, for the middle band is not necessary to select varieties with large fruits.Otherwise, they will not have time to fully grow and mature.In addition, it is necessary to explore all sorts of characteristics, they most often indicated on the packaging.Sufficient time for the formation of ovaries full of fruits, should be small.Furthermore, if the gardener wants melon not only to his desk, but also to implement part of the crop in the market, it is necessary to take into account properties such as portability, the size and the taste of the fruit.
Most often in the middle lane planted melons:
• Present the North;
• Pink Champagne;krimstar;
• Podmoskovny Charstoln;
After the gardener selects the appropriate grade for themselves, it is necessary to prepare the planting material for planting.It should be mentioned that if you use fresh seeds (based on practical experience) is to get a little ripe melons will be able, for this reason, you need sown seeds harvested two or three years ago .
Another component in the proper preparation of planting material for sowing is hardening .This will give an opportunity to improve their germination, make this operation for 1-2 weeks before planting.First, the seed is immersed in water heated to 30-35 degrees.After a few hours, they must be removed, a little dry and stand in a room with a day temperature of 18 degrees.Thereafter, the seeds is transferred into a cooler where hold 18 hours.Further, again placed in a room temperature to 20 degrees.Thus, repeated three times and sown seeds in the flower bed.
Alushta - to fruit maturity takes 70 days.Melon oval, large, grows up to 1.5 kg.The flesh is juicy, sweet, white.
Dessert 5 - the fruits are small, grow weighing up to 1.6 kg, delicate, very sweet, white-green flesh.It has high keeping quality.
Golden - rounded fruit, yellow weighing up to 1.6 kg.Flesh is white, juicy, good resistance to disease.
Yuzhanka - round, large fruits weighing up to 1.9 kg.Yielding varieties, the taste is similar to the Collective Farm.
Farmer - grade very common, stable, and most suitable for growing in the middle zone.Melons are round, orange, weighing 1 kg.Very sweet, white flesh.
Growing melons.Sowing and planting (deadlines, feeding, shelter, temperature, soil, etc.)
melon seeds are sown seedlings at in April , will take place after three to four weeks, the grown seedlings can be transplanted into open ground.For sowing melon selected container about 12x12 cm in each of these pots were sown seeds 3, are recessed at their 2.3 cm. Following this capacitance sprinkled sand, about 1 cm thick.Pot is placed in a room with heat and light, wherein the temperature is maintained below 22 degrees.For melon seedlings, you can use the shopping soil mix , intended for the cultivation of horticultural crops, or on your own soil mix consisting of:
1. 1 part sand;
2. 9 parts peat.
Or use a soil mix composition:
1. 1 part of garden soil;
2. 3 parts of humus;
3. 1 tablespoon of potash fertilizers;
4. 3 tablespoons of phosphorus fertilizers;
5. 1 spoonful of nitrogen fertilizer.
bad in the mixture, add a glass of wood ash in the bucket of the mixture.To seedlings was easier to get out into the wild, the seeds at planting is better to lay on its side.Watering after planting pots should be in moderation.
night can not allow reducing the temperature in the room with seedlings less than 15 degrees.Days 6-7 will be the first sprouts of melon.Since planted in pots for the extra 3 seed sprouts must be removed, leaving only one pot to the strongest germ.
seedlings must be watered only gently so that excess water does not wet the leaves and stems.Formation of 3 of these leaves is a sign that the melon seedlings grown stronger and can be planted in the flower bed.At this age, they pinch , which leads to more side shoots.
the wells in the garden before planting seedlings is desirable to add a little compost, after which they are well watered, planted seedlings, seedlings and sprinkle the roots with soil.The wells must be placed at a distance of between 70 cm minimally.
Important! When planting seedlings to not injure their roots, it is better for them, do not touch.Therefore, experienced gardeners transplanted seedlings without destroying the soil clod.
melon cultivation in the open ground
place for planting melon is prepared in two stages:
1. The first of them - the digging of the soil in the autumn, and fertilization.Dig up the flower bed should be 40-50 cm deep, and then sprinkle on the surface of the mold section (1 m2 4 kg).Then you need to wait for the arrival of spring;
2. The second - is to be performed with the first thaw in the spring.On the surface of the beds scatter mineral mixtures (preparations should contain potassium and phosphorus) and then dug up.After this procedure, preparation of the beds for planting melon over.
In the south of the country, spring comes much earlier, allowing even planted the seeds of late melons directly into the ground.The pre-cut is not less than three meters grooves 12-15 cm planted seeds.Above them covered with soil, and then well watered flower bed.When the seedlings appear, they must be thinned, so that the distance between individual plants to leave a distance of 0.5 m, after the bushes grow a portion intrude again, leaving the strongest sprouts.As a result, the distance between the bushes melon should have not less than two meters.
Growing melons.Care, feeding
Growing a melon, you need to be attentive to the care of plants.One of the most important works is pintsirovka growing shoots .It is necessary to start, after the formation of the fifth sheet on them, after this operation, the main escape bush will grow side shoots.You must wait until they are also formed with five leaves and also pintsirovat.Then you have to wait for the formation of ovaries, which turn into a melon in the future.On each whip the plants should grow no more than five (at the large-fruited varieties) or ten (in small-fruited melon) ovaries.Unnecessary ovaries need to cut short, so as not to deplete the plant.
Melon does not require a large amount of moisture, for this reason it needs to be watered moderately .If you live in a region where it rains often, it is desirable to provide shelter during inclement weather.You can use this simple plastic film.
After planting melon seedlings in the ground it is necessary to regularly feed .For this purpose, complex fertilizers, feeding frequency once every ten days.
Proper care will allow melon fruits to keep up until the first frost.If the time is not enough, then do not worry, you need to pluck the fruit, and they dospeyut at home.
Main pests and how to deal with them
Melons, may be affected by fungal, viral and bacterial diseases, and as a result can be lost.Sources of infection - soil, plant residues, weeds.To reduce losses from pests and diseases when growing melons need to comply with crop rotation and farming techniques, processing seed and seedlings special preparations.
melon aphid .Sucking pests, which multiplies very quickly, placed under the leaves in small groups.Leaves of the plant turn yellow and curl, and then dry.Inflorescences not disclose fall.
Control measures need to be removed with the beds weeds and plant residues.Treat crops 30% solution Aktelika, soapy water and 10% karbofosom.
Spider mite .Pest small, lives on the bottom of the leaf, they can be detected by cobweb on the lamina.They suck sap, affected plants turn yellow and die over time.
Control measures include crop residues and weeds must be removed from the garden, autumn is necessary to make a deep digging of soil.
wireworm .Beetle larvae, stem damage, located in the ground, resulting in death of the melon.
Control: remove the remains of plants and weeds, they are often going to this pest.
Cutworms .larvae live in the soil, they injure the stem of a plant that can cause the death of melon Bush.
Control: Weeds and crop residues removed from the beds.In the fall to make a deep digging of soil.
Powdery mildew .On the stem, and sheets of paper visible whitish spots of small size, through a short period they spread further and can cover the entire surface of the sheet.
Control: Upon detection of the disease, the landing process (every 10 days) to 400 g per 100 m2 80% sulfur powder.The latter process can be carried out not later than 20 days before harvest.
Fusarium Wilt .Fungal disease of melons, and later affects more middle-class, greatly impairs the quality and quantity of the crop.Ill fruit, not less juicy and fragrant, they are poorly stored.The disease becomes apparent after the formation of 2 - 3 true leaves, and during ripening.The stems and fruits of infected plants quickly wither, the plant leaves turn pale.
measures: implementation of the requirements of crop rotation, removing weeds and crop residues and destruction of diseased plants.Deep digging of the soil in the autumn, moderate watering.The seeds sowing to five minutes decontaminated in 40% formalin.Melons are planted on high ridges.When the buds on the plants treated with landing KCI solution.
Anthracnose .In this disease appear on sheets of paper round pink or brownish spots, through the time they get bigger.Sick leaves curl and dry, brittle lashes plants will melt and become thinner, the fruits vary in shape and rot.
Control: crops should be watered sparingly after each watering the soil in the beds loosened.Landings pollinate gray or treated with 1% Bordeaux fluid.
Peronosporosis .The disease affects young leaves, with humidity increase the bottom sheet appears grayish-purple patina.
Control: seeds before sowing is disinfected by heating them for 2 hours in water with a temperature of 45 degrees.Affected beds spray the urea solution, forming a solution of 1 g of fertilizer in 1 liter of water, and treated with Bordeaux mixture.The treatment was repeated after 10 days.