Primrose - growing, care , transplantation and reproduction
A House And A Garden / / December 12, 2017
Genus Primula ( Primul) from the family of primrose( Primulaceae) is one of the most numerous in the world flora. According to various sources, it is represented by 400-550 species, and so far new species of primulas have been discovered by botanists. Most of them are Asia, the Himalayas and western China, where up to 300 species can be found in nature. Another 33 species will grow in Europe, about 20 species in North America, and several species grow in Africa, South America and Arabia. One species( primula imperial - Primula imperialis) can be found on the island of Java.
The name of primula is translated from Latin as "first", and it's no accident, because it is the primula is the first bright adornment of the spring garden, dazzlingly playing against the backdrop of the black earth. And with a successful selection of species and varieties of this plant you can admire the flowering of primula almost to the middle of summer, and some of them are able to bloom even repeatedly, decorating the garden or the courtyard with bright strokes of their inflorescences in the autumn months.
The most common types of primulas include the following: spring primulas( P. veris), primulae ushkovata and primula dentate - they blossom in May;primula Japanese - blooms in May-June;primula of Julia - blooms twice, in May and August, but decorativeness can retain until late autumn.
Primrose - Growth and Care
The conditions for growing primroses are determined by their species and origin. For some, open areas should be chosen, for others shading is more appropriate among bushes and trees. However, for all types of primulas when choosing a place for planting it is better to ensure their shading at noon hours. That is, it is better to give preference to a shady corner among trees, or a flower bed that is illuminated by the sun only in the morning hours, or, when growing on a rocky hill - its eastern, northern or western side.
An important part of care for primroses is the irrigation regime, as in nature they grow on moist soils. The best option is to ensure such conditions under which flowers will receive enough moisture, but without stagnation of water. Especially primroses need a lot of moisture in the spring.
Soils for growing primrose need loose, nutritious, able to retain moisture well. On heavy clay soils, primroses do not grow. In extreme cases, you can improve them by adding sand( bucket per 1 sq. M.), Vermiculite, cut sphagnum moss, and applying organic fertilizers( up to 20 kg per 1 sq. M.), Or replace 20 cm of top soil layerprepared with a nutrient mixture.
Organic fertilizers( up to 20 kg per 1 sq. M.) Are also introduced into light but not nutrient-rich soil. First of all, it is decayed humus, compost or leaf earth, weathered peat, which can not only enrich the soil with nutrients but also improve its structure and water regime. To plants luxuriantly bloom, phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen fertilizers can be added to the soil mixture.
Also, the plant should be fed with phosphate-potassium fertilizers during the growing season, at least three times. First - in early spring, then in 2-3 weeks, and, finally, in August.
Primula - transplant and multiplication
In 3-4 years, the primrose bushes grow out, and in order that new rosettes do not crush each other, and the plant does not weaken its flowering, they plant them, dividing them into new bushes. Doing this is preferable in August, so that new plants can take root before the onset of cold weather.
In addition to division, primrose can be propagated by seeds and rooting of axillary shoots.
The optimal time for sowing seeds is from November to December, but in principle they can be sown all year round. For good germination, the crop should be kept at a temperature of 16 ° C to 20 ° C in high humidity and good light conditions. If these requirements are met, shoots should appear in 10-12 days, then the air temperature and humidity can begin to gradually decrease. In March-April, the seedlings should be transplanted into small pots, followed by a transplant into the open ground. It must be remembered that seedlings of primroses, in comparison with plants obtained by other methods of reproduction, grow more slowly and require increased care.
If a plant has one rosette of leaves or a weak root system that does not allow the bush to be divided, it is propagated by rooting the axillary shoots. To do this, separating the leaf petiole with the kidney and part of the shoot and cutting the leaf plates at the base of the root neck, the stalk is planted in the planting mixture from deciduous land and coarse-grained river sand. For such a stalk to take root, it is necessary to ensure that it is kept in a bright room, but away from direct sunlight, at a temperature of 16 ° C to 18 ° C and moderate soil moistening. Over time, these buds will give shoots that have 3-4 leaves. They should be planted in 7-9-centimeter pots, and then, in the event of favorable weather conditions, transplanted into the open ground.
Primrose - diseases and pests
Most often, primordial diseases such as rot of stems and root neck, rust, white rust, bacterial leaf spot, anthracnose, powdery mildew, jaundice, cucumber mosaic viruses and spotted tomato wilt can also be affected, as well as pests:leaf, stem and root nematodes, aphids, weevils, spider mites, slugs, beetles, fleas, etc.
The most dangerous for primula - spotting caused by the fungus. The cercosporella. They may appear in late spring or early summer with round or angular spots that first have a pale color, and then turn gray or brown with a yellowish border. Since the middle of summer, these spots are covered with a gray or white coating, the affected leaves dry up, the plant ceases to bloom. To combat this disease, it is necessary to cut off and destroy diseased leaves, and the remaining plants should be treated with a 2-solution of basezol, or with a 0.2% solution of topsin, or with a 1.5% solution of zineb. It is also advisable to use Bordeaux liquid( 1%), copper chloride( 0.5%).Spraying of plants should be carried out in the spring and after flowering. For autumn preventive spraying, nitrafen( 1%) is used.