Growing beans : the problem of choosing the variety and Tricks care .How to achieve high yields when grown bean in the area ?
A House And A Garden / / August 12, 2017
Beans - heat-loving culture.Even not strong frosts are harmful for her.
But beans are grown successfully, many gardeners in temperate climates.
To gather a rich harvest of beans, choose the correct grade.They displayed a lot - there is even a miniature species.
Care beans will not be time-consuming.
Choose a variety of beans
Beans belongs to the legume family.It grows as a shrub or twists on the support.Color and shape of the seed, depending on the plant variety, vary.There are types and monotonous, and with a "mosaic" color of the beans.Ornamental varieties of beans are not suitable for food, but the culture in their appearance adorns the garden, and colorful dried seeds can then be used for decoration.
decided to plant culture useful on your site?Then start by selecting varieties.They are all for the convenience of breeders and gardeners are divided into 3 groups:
• With Shelling (grain), beans .These varieties are less valuable in terms of food - grown, mainly on grain, which is famous for its nourishing properties.They are distinguished by the presence of dense flaps inside the pod - in the food are just beans.Consider the following varieties - Light, Chocolate, Nerussa, Heliades, Day, Ballad, Dream hostess, Golden, Ruby, Barbara, Stanichnaya, Bezenchukskaya white, Oran, Lilac.
• With polusaharnymi beans .Universal beans, which are grown on the seed, and for food entirely.Parchment layer flaps is not as hard or appears only at the end of the season.vein must be removed prior to heat treatment.Suitable for cultivation in the garden variety - Antoshka, Runt, Secunda, present Fantasia.
• sugar (asparagus), beans .Varieties of this group are considered to be the most delicious - they do not have dense leaves.Suitable for food immediately after cooking - beans and pods are characterized by a gentle pleasant taste.Popular varieties - Lambada, Polka, Crane, Face, Darin, Sapphire, Purple Queen, Golden neck, Sachs 615, Zinaida, Emerald, Cinderella, Hope, Rosinka, Moorish.
should take into account the climatic characteristics of the region.Choose plants that mature faster for crops in the northern and temperate latitudes, or - before the first autumn frosts will not have time to mature pods.In the southern regions of the same can be taken for any sort of culture.Beans on ripening divided into 3 groups:
• Early ripe (65 days) - Tara, Curly vegetable, Early maturing, Contender
• Middle- (65-75 days) - Harmony, Oil is the earliest 273, Oran, Dialogue, News ,.
• middle- (75-100 days) - Gribovskaya 92, Tiraspol, Purple
• late- (over 100 days) - Beron, Turk, Melody.
If vegetables in your yard frequently "ill" and under attack from pests, better plant varieties resistant to them.The packaging is indicated to the seeds.
Choose a place to land
Beans loves the sun .In the penumbra, it is also growing, but high-yield indices does not.Allow the plant to a suitable area on the site, so he missed the sun and blown by strong winds.Curly varieties can be planted near the fence of the place - then and additional support is not required.
Grow beans better on light, fertile, well-drained soils .On clay, water-logged ground do not expect a high yield of legumes.Choose a plot of land that is close to the surface of the soil did not pass the groundwater.The reaction of the soil should be slightly alkaline - pH 6-6.5.If there is a need, before the planting Alkalize ground chalk or dolomite.
Do not plant beans after related crops (peas, peanuts, lentils, soy) - planting will be passed "common" diseases.In this place, you can return only after 3-4 years.Experienced gardeners beans are sown after the tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, cabbage.Legumes and themselves - other than green manure to enrich the soil minerals.After the beans land becomes more friable and fertile, suitable for growing vegetables.
Grow beans: soil preparation and seed for planting
If the land is on the plot is rich in minerals and humus, the more agricultural machinery is not required.If necessary, before the autumn planting Feed the beds, intended for sowing beans so (with the expectation of 1 m2):
• humus - 4-5 kg,
• Potash salt - 20-30 g,
• superphosphate - 25'35
add to the soil of 15-20 g / m2 of ammonium nitrate 1 before spring planting.
Buy seeds of beans - not a problem, as they have in every gardening store.Examine the packaging, read the characteristics of the variety.If you take the planting seeds, taken from their own harvest, make sure that planting a whole, without traces of wormholes and defeat disease.
Fasolinki better prepare beforehand - so they will give the shoots.
• beans to swell overnight soak in hot water with the addition of potassium permanganate.It is convenient to put the seeds in damp cotton pads or cloth.
• A few minutes before landing the beans soak in a solution of boric acid - this will protect them from destruction by pests.
seeds germinated beans
autumn bean planting is suitable only for the southern regions of the country, where winter temperatures do not drop below -2 ˚C.In temperate climates, if you choose early or srednesozrevayuschie cultivar, planting begins in late May or early summer, when the threat of frost has passed return.And in order not to lose valuable time that would be required for fruit ripening culture, can be pre-planted seedlings of beans - at home or in warm greenhouses.
Planting bean seedlings done so:
• Sprouted seeds are sown for convenience in individual pots of nutritious soils to a depth of 3-5 cm deeper planting will lead to the fact that the shoots do not hatch..Pots, cover with foil or glass to create an enabling environment for the seeds.
• As long as the ground does not appear the first shoots, planting is necessary to maintain the temperature of 20-23 ˚C.
• You can then reduce the temperature to 16 ° C.
grown bean sprouts
After 2-3 weeks, the seedlings can be transferred to the open ground.Watch the weather - on the street has to be warm (not less than 15 ˚C)!Do not damage the roots, with a lump of native land transplant the seedlings to the flower bed.The distance between the plants - 8-10 cm and between rows -. 35-50 cm soil pour warm water and cover with foil or planting non-woven fabric for a few days.
winding Planting beans are near a fence, trellis system, prepare well in advance.The easiest option - 2 pole with a strained between them a wire or twine.In this case, planting is carried out on both sides of the trellis.
Homemade trellis for beans
And when landing culture "nests" (in one well of a few seeds) instead of ropes using conventional wooden stakes driven into the ground around the wells.It is better not to use plastic or metal stick - for them the plant does not get caught.
The optimum temperature for growing beans - 23-28 ˚C.With proper care, it will continue to grow at lower temperatures.Unacceptable just below freezing -2 ˚C.
Terms care beans:
• Watering .The plant requires abundant watering, especially - during the formation of the pods.Make sure that the soil is always moist was moderate.The exact rate of moisture will depend on the weather.The best water for watering legumes - rain.To quickly moisture does not evaporate Zamulchiruyte beds - such as peat.It also prevents the growth of weeds, greatly facilitating the care of plantings.
• Loosening and weeding .Preferably after each watering proryhlit beds with beans, lest the land was covered with a dense crust.This will help prevent and wetlands - the soil is light and well-drained.The soil does not dig deep, otherwise damage the root system.Be sure to take time, and the removal of weeds between plantings.To the beds were fewer unnecessary shoots, you can use a special liquid preparations harmless to crops
• Feeding .When plants take root in a fixed place, you can spend the first feeding.Use complex fertilizers, which have nitrogen.In the future, the culture is no longer required nitrogen-containing substance, otherwise - will grow abundantly green mass.Many gardeners use a fermented chicken manure or the infusion of weeds.After 3-4 weeks for the normal formation of the fruit conduct a second fertilizer landings.During this period, the beans need phosphorus, magnesium and Kalia.
grown beans!How to harvest?
method and timing of the harvest depends on the variety planted beans.Novice gardeners often collect all the fruit at once.This is not entirely true, because the pods may ripen unevenly.Check them to maturity and cut the ones that are ready for harvest.
green beans in the garden do not overdo - it will lose its nutritional value.The seeds from the pods do not get it - the fruits are eaten whole.The pods are cut away in a timely manner - until they have dried.To determine the ripeness of fruit just - faults pod in half.At fault it should be smooth, without fiber.
beans were grown for grain, the contrary, in the garden you can hold longer - so it will be easier to remove from the pods of legumes.Wait until they start to turn yellow and crack.Latecomers to the collection - it is necessary to collect seeds from the ground.If the harvest is plentiful and there is no time to go through all the fruits, pods lay on a blanket on top of another cover, lightly tap it with a stick - beans themselves go out of the pods.
collected beans can be eaten immediately or to make preparations for the winter - freeze, dry.
How to protect the beans from diseases and pests?
beans damaged by insects and rarely suffers from pests.If you observe the general rules and the culture of cultivation, planting will give high yields.Preventing this:
• Obey all rotations.
• Despite the fact that the beans do not like the cold winds, the site should be well ventilated.So it is possible to prevent rot plants and fungal diseases.
• Do not use the "questionable" seed - so you can add to the soil of the disease that will destroy not only the beans, but also the nearby landing.
• Observe planting scheme as a strong gelled in the beds result in the formation of fungi, and plants will not have enough sunlight.
• It is better to immediately remove the affected beds with insects and disease specimens.
beans more often 'bugged' 2 Among bug pests - spider mite and bean weevil.
Spider mite striking foliage plants, entangling her thin white threads - if time does not take action, the green mass will fall off the stems do not give the ovaries.
But settles inside the pod weevil feeding on seeds.Inspect the seeds before planting - small holes in them show that there has already been an insect.Safely dispose of such planting.The pest control help to pesticides.But chemicals choose carefully, because the fruit will continue to be used as food.
most dangerous disease for the beans - and ntraknoz, Bacteriosis .Get rid of them is almost impossible - remove damaged items immediately from better beds, so as not to infect other plants.White rot and rust "treatment" lend themselves well - just spray planting a special solution and remove the damaged parts of the plant.
Anthracnose on beans
appearance of pests and diseases is much easier to prevent than to save the landing.Watch out for the beds, to the end of the season to collect a bountiful harvest.