Growing violets - it's not easy , but the result is worth it.Terms of the successful cultivation of violets in the home
A House And A Garden / / August 12, 2017
Saintpaulia considered relatively undemanding plant in indoor horticulture.
, you need to create the right conditions for it to is happy with its owner long and abundant flowering.
Grow Violets: the choice of planting material
The right choice of planting material - the guarantor of successful cultivation of violets.Buy planting violets can be in the form of seeds, cuttings, kids, starters.If there is a choice between the babe and mature blossoming socket, it is better to give preference to the latter - "pig in a poke" (neprotsvetshee plant) can be very frustrating.
It is best to purchase from collectors or floral exhibitions: the risk of getting peresort, diseased or infected plant pests is much lower than in random places.When you purchase is necessary to pay attention to the appearance of the plant: a healthy copy of the brilliant and hard to the touch leaves no stains and damage, correct color (the color for each class).To suit cutting the lower leaves of the second and third order from the bottom.Beginners should start breeding violets with simple varieties: they are cheaper and easier to clean than the selection of new items.
Growing violets: planting
root system of violets is located close to the soil surface.Therefore, need for deep and large pots there.Flower pots should be 3 times smaller than the outlet.Since the plant will bloom better.For good rooting plastic cups, containers, bubbles out of the drug.
most suitable temperature for growing violets is considered to be from +18 to +22 Celsius.If the plant overwinters in the cold window sill, the soil in the pot should not be too wet, otherwise the inevitable death of the flower.In summer, you need to avoid overheating of flowers on the window from the sun.Violet can not tolerate drafts.
Saintpaulia thrive on light sandy soils.For the cultivation of violets can be bought ready-made industrial pochvosmesi or create your own on the basis of 4 of the sheet (turf) soil, 1 part peat and sand.Not bad to add humus, shredded peat moss, perlite.
Grow Violets: care, fertilizing
Successful care Saintpaulia includes well-chosen method of irrigation, light conditions, fertilization.
Violet prefers bright, but diffuse lighting.On the sunny side of the apartment it is better not to avoid burns of leaves and flowers.If the windows are located just to the south, in which case it is necessary to senpoliy pritenit.The duration of insolation is optimal within 12-14 hours.To judge the abundance or shortage of light for growing violets can be external plant species.
If there is insufficient light the leaves are pulled up, lose the "velvet" appearance, petioles and flower stalks elongate, flowering is absent or weakly expressed, in variegated varieties are disappearing spots.When daylight lengthening over 14-16 hours causes growth retardation, leaf stalks are bent down, "hugging" the pot, flower stalks are short, shallow and pale flowers.By controlling the lighting, you can change the appearance of violets.To properly formed sockets, pots of violets should be periodically rotated.The dust from the leaves to look like a soft brush or wash off with warm water (be sure to allow the plants to dry).
Violets do not like dry air.Its humidity needed for the germination of seeds, rooting cuttings of leaf and children.For this, they are placed in packets teplichku or cover, and mature plants from pots were placed in trays with moist peat or moss.However, the main thing here is not to overdo it, otherwise quickly develop bacterial and fungal diseases.The best option is 46-50%.
The schedule watering for growing violets is important moderation and flexible approach that takes into account the following factors:
• composition of soil mixture in the pot;
• room temperature;
• brightness lighting;
• age and physiological state of the plant;
• pot size and material;
Watering in several ways.
When watering top do not allow moisture on the foliage and flowers.The villi retain water drops, it leads to decay and death of the plant.To prevent soil erosion of the water in a thin stream is directed along the edge of the pot.It is convenient to use a syringe or watering can with a long spout.The advantage of this method is that together with the water from the washed soil harmful salts.
When watering from the pallet pot of violets 1/4 immersed in a container of water until wet earthen clod.water residue from the pallet then need to be drained.This method is used for watering plants and young children.It is important in this method is not put on a pallet a few pots to prevent infection between plants.
When watering wick moisture goes evenly into the pot on the twine or cord, descended into the container with an aqueous solution of fertilizer.This version - magic wand with prolonged absence of the person at home (vacation, stay in the hospital, etc.).The success of this method is provided with well-chosen string parameters (diameter, material, capillary conductivity).
In winter, when the violets stand on the cold windowsill pot of water flowing into the rapidly cools.It inhibits the root system.Therefore, at this time it is safer to water in the usual way.
Tap water for irrigation should be warm to room temperature (18-20 degrees) and stand 20-24 hours to evaporate the chlorine out of it.
In the spring and summer feeding in growing violets is carried out 1-2 times a month.In this alternate mineral and organic components.If the plant is planted in fresh soil, the first time you can feed 2 months later.Too much fertilizer causes rapid growth of leaves, flowering is reduced until the complete cessation.As a result, decorative appearance deteriorates.Before fertilizing the soil in the pot should be watered.This will protect the roots from the burn.Plants contained on shelves under artificial light, fed throughout the year.
When growing violets reproduce them in several ways.
rooting in water - best known way.Cope with it even a novice grower.For successful rooting cuttings important is the right choice.Old and young leaves are not suitable for this purpose.For this purpose, a sheet with better to choose two of the lower row.He should be healthy: a resilient, with no scratches, strains, wounds, burns.Cut off his best at 45 degrees - in this slice rooting area will be larger than the cross-cut.The length of the cut stalk 4-5 cm. The cut should be dry and sprinkle with activated carbon.Better every stalk put in a separate container (for that bubbles out of the drug are well suited) to water was only the lower part of the stem.However, it should not rest on the bottom or walls of the vessel and be in the "hovering" position.After the appearance of roots sapling transplanted into a bowl with a light soil mix.Within a month, there are miniature sockets that are transplanted separately in shallow pots.
rooting in the ground.This method involves rooting leaf stalk directly into prepared soil.It is very convenient to use for planting food transparent container or a disposable plastic cup.It is necessary to make a pre-holes for ventilation.On the bottom pour 1-1.5 cm substrate, then a layer of vermiculite or perlite.All moisten.Prepared sapling planted to the boundary layers.After planting, container put in teplichku (you can use the zip-package) and to provide diffused light (no direct sunlight).Throughout the rooting process is necessary to ensure that condensation does not enter the leaf blade.
Rooting leaf in the substrate .This method is used when you want to get as much as possible longer "children" of valuable or rare varieties of violets.cut the new "list" of sheet cutting.Such pruning stimulates the formation of children to circumcision edges.Or you can cut the leaf blade into pieces, each of them should stay at least one major vein.
Leaf fragments should be disinfected in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, dry, slices sprinkled with charcoal.Then drop them into the substrate and put in teplichku.To reduce the amount of condensate, teplichku must periodically ventilate.
rooting stems and laterals used for breeding violets chimeras (their flowers striped) and trailer.In other ways, such instances do not bloom on the grade and become chaotic color flowers.To grow stepchildren, it is necessary to cut off the top to the mother plant.From the side of the sinuses in the acquired stump grow stepchildren.When they grow up, they perpetuate a leafy cuttings.In 70-85% of cases of flowering "bokovushek" differs from the parent.More chimeras, respectively blooming grade (90-95%), it is possible to obtain reproduction stems.For this purpose, deflorate flower or blown.With peduncle cut flowers closer to the stipules and rooting it in the mini-greenhouse.
Varietal kids grow out of stipules, so those that grow below, it is necessary to break off.You can try this method to root flower cup.
Reproduction seed - the most sophisticated method of cultivation of violets in the home.Parent plant for removable material should be healthy.For practical use sowing transparent container with a cover.It must be filled with perlite, which sow the seeds of violets and moisturize with an atomizer.It should be aired daily.The substrate must not dry out.When the seedlings grow, they need to sit down and dive into separate cups.
Main pests and methods of combating them
From the appearance of pests is not insured none Florist.To get to the pests can through the soil substrate with new plants acquired through open windows, on the field and cut flowers.
fungus gnats (stsiaridy) - black gnats, which lay up to 300 eggs in a pot with soil.Vyluplyayas larvae (white worms with black head) damage the roots of violets, especially young rosettes.Measures to combat fungus gnats include mechanical and chemical options.Adult flies can destroy the adhesive tapes, the fumigator.Ground whom shed recommended insecticide (eg Nemabakt, Akhtar) scheme.Before planting, the soil should be steamed.
Tsiklamenovy mite indistinguishable to the human eye.For large colonies it looks like a layer of ash.The plant grows poorly, stops flowering, leaf edges curl downward.The young leaves the point of growth are excessively hairy.On the affected blossoming flower typical small specks.Flowers themselves, and if opened, the deformed.To combat the mites are sprayed fitoverm, Vermitekom or Akarinom.Treatments are carried out 4 times every 3 days.
mealybugs (coccidia) - sucking insects is white.It settles on the roots and in leaf axils.In the affected tissues appear reddish-brown spots (bites place), leaf blades are deformed.To destroy coccid alternate 3-fold treatment Akhtar and fitoverm with an interval of 5-7 days.
Fusarium .The causative agent of this disease is the fungus Fusarium.Often manifested as browning and falling off leaves, rotting roots during the cold season.This is facilitated by the wrong agricultural machinery senpolii: heavy soil, high humidity, excessive watering, sudden temperature changes, the use of cold water, the high content of nitrogen.To prevent the plants shed fungicides (rastvorfundazola), to comply with the lighting mode of irrigation.
Powdery mildew - a disease caused by a variety of fungi on a violet buds and flowers, and sometimes leaves.It looks like a powdery coating.On diseased plants remove damaged parts and sprayed with fungicide "Topaz".Nearby plants also need to spray for prevention.
blight - a disease caused by the fungus Phytophthora infestans.He enters the plant through the roots.With the defeat of violets this pathogen rotten root collar, brown spots appear on the leaves.Plants can be saved only in the early stages, are rooted uninfected leaves.Diseased plants should be destroyed, sterilized pot.
Gray mold (botridioz) appears as a grayish coating on parts of the plant dying.With high humidity and low temperature pathogen fungus Botridis affects healthy plants.To get rid of the fungal spores soil before use should be decontaminated by calcination, freezing.At the initial stage, the leaves lose their elasticity, become soft, turn brown around the edges.Then, on the infected areas appear gray mold, and they die.They should remove the plant to treat with fungicide and transplanted into fresh soil.
12, 08, 2017